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  1. Cummins And Carbon

    From the album Air Management Failures

    A fouled Cummins Intake Manifold Temperature Pressure Sensor from a high idle hour 6.7L ISB engine.
  2. Air Management Failures

    From EGR systems to turbochargers and after treatment components air management has plagued modern diesels and perplexed technicians. Here we will take a look at some of the things that prevent these diesels from breathing properly and cause a lot of driveability concerns.
  3. Cummins EGR Adapter

    From the album Air Management Failures

    A highly restricted EGR valve adapter in a high idle hour Cummins 6.7L ISB engine.
  4. Cummins EGR Valve

    From the album Air Management Failures

    A carbon fouled EGR valve on a high idle hour Cummins 6.7L ISB engine.
  5. Cummins Intake Heater Grid

    From the album Air Management Failures

    Cummins 6.7L ISB intake air heater grid plugged with carbon on a high idle hour engine.
  6. Fuel Additive Bottle Caps

    We have heard of this unfortunate and easy to make mistake. You want to take care of your truck and use products that can help promote good fuel quality and system integrity which includes a variety of fuel system additives. Typically these products come in small bottles that have caps containing a coated cardboard disc inside of the cap intended to provide a seal. Apparently these discs are not adequately secured to the cap and may remain stuck to the top of the bottle. If you are not observant and begin pouring your product into the fuel filler of your truck and this seal is stuck to the top of the bottle it may come loose as soon as the liquid begins to flow taking the cap into the fuel tank along with it. So what you say and there is probably all sorts of junk floating about inside you fuel tank? Well, there have been many reports of 2011 and newer Super Duty trucks that have been stopped in their tracks when these seemingly harmless discs get pulled up against the fuel pick up causing a restriction resulting in low fuel pressure and an engine stalling event. When this happens there will be a loud whining sound coming from the fuel supply pump and a low fuel pressure warning on the instrument cluster. This condition will likely be an intermittent and random concern making it very difficult to verify and diagnose therefore you should keep this in mind. And for the vehicle owner reading this, remember to look at your additive bottle before pouring. It just may save you and a technician some headaches.
  7. HFCM Drain Plug Upgrade

    Having troubles draining your fuel water separator on your 2003 or newer Ford Super Duty truck? You are not alone and in fact, many technicians and owners that perform their own maintenance report that the 6 millimeter hex plug frequently strips out due to the soft metal that they are made from. Unfortunately once this happens most attempts to remove it fail.But when the plug does perform as designed fuel usually drains from the HFCM (Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module) it spills onto the front drive shaft of 4X4 models and drips uncontrollably onto the ground and usually the person removing the plug. Here's what the Doctors prescribe to ease your pain. The problematic HFCM drain plug on 2003 and newer Super Duty trucks equipped with diesel engines can be upgraded to a better designed plug borrowed from the all new LCF trucks which went into production in the beginning of 2005. After observing the plug in the LCF's frame rail the idea struck us! The plug was then removed to be inserted into a Super Duty HFCM and sure enough, it fit! This new plug, shown on the left in the photograph, has a large round knob added to it with non-slip grooves and it retains the 6 millimeter hex. The great thing about this knob (see inset) is that it allows the plug to be removed and installed by hand making servicing much easier. We also noticed that "finger tight" is sufficient to keep the plug secure. If the plug becomes difficult to remove you can still use a hex tool and there is now a place to clamp a pair of pliers to should the 6 millimeter hex round out! The second neat feature is the long retainer that not only keeps the plug from being dropped but it wicks the draining water and fuel down and away from spilling onto the front drive shaft on 4X4 models. This also makes capturing the expelled fuel into a drain bucket or a sample jar neater and safer. You can obtain one of these plugs at you favorite Ford or International dealer's Parts Department. Ford part number: 6E7Z-9C082-A International part number: 2589259C91 List price is around $16.00 Putting an end to this insanity - PRICELESS!
  8. 6.0L Block Heater Cord

    Finding the factory installed block heater connector is difficult because it is tucked behind the bumper. Installing a block heater cord is equally difficult. At one time, all Ford trucks equipped with diesel engines with block heaters came with the power cord and plug. For the 2005 model year, production vehicles were no longer automatically equipped with the cord even though the engine manufacturer, International Truck and Engine Corporation, installed the heater element in all of the engines. The power cord is available as an option and it will be on any truck ordered with one but the connector has proven difficult to locate for many owners. If you are trying to install one in a truck that is not equipped, you will likely need assistance on determining the proper routing. An improperly routed and secured cable is susceptible to damage and failure. This is an illustrated guide to assist you. Looking at the starter motor (right) you can easily locate the block heater element installed in the cylinder block just above. You can easily access this from underneath the truck though you will not be able to easily see it. The orange power cord is routed behind the right engine mount along with the main battery cable and the automatic transmission cooler lines. (if equipped) If you are installing a new cord, you will have to install the cord from just below the air conditioning compressor and feed it from the front towards the back. (below) This view (left) is of the front of the engine looking at the right frame rail and the A/C compressor. The white arrow is pointing out the block heater cord so that you can follow it. This is also where you want to feed the heater element end of the cord from. Notice that the cord and the battery cable route down and under the transmission cooler lines just behind the remote transmission filter assembly and up along the frame rail. The Block heater cord then goes over the frame to the outboard edge of the frame which is now on the outside of the inner fender well which is missing in the photograph. From the right fender well over the tire and wheel, the cord runs along the outside of the frame in a rigid plastic tube. Both ends of the tube are secured to the frame with a plastic push type pin that is taped to it. You will now need to push the cord back under the plastic wheel well (not shown) and behind the front bumper. The photo on the left shows the right frame rail and the back of the bumper. This is where the cord is found on trucks that have them installed from the factory. If your fingers are nimble enough you can reach in on the left factory fog lamp opening and pull it out. Doing this usually rips the cord from the anchor pins that are taped to it. This is actually a good thing because getting those anchors out is extremely difficult and they become useless at this point anyway. Once the cord is free and the tie strap is removed you can route the plug through the grille opening or the more preferred routing is through the right fog lamp opening and secure it to the right tow hook with the connector cap. Removing the anchor pins from the harness frees-up a nice length of cord that can be pulled out of the bumper when in use. Final Note: Coat the plug and pack the inside of the plug cap with Silicone Electrical Grease (available from your dealer or Motorcraft supplier) to protect the electrical contacts from exposure from the elements and road salt.
  9. Calculating Tire RPM

    Tire size and axle ratio are two important parameters required by several modules in Ford trucks. For some reason, tire RPM seems to be a difficult parameter to determine when tires other than stock have been installed. This directly affects several modules in the vehicle, most notably the instrument cluster and the powertrain control module. After changing the tire size or following the replacement of an ABS, GEM, Instrument Cluster or powertrain Control Module, several parameters may need to be manually set. This requires the use of a diagnostic computer or a scan tool capable of this function. Even though the advanced Ford diagnostic tools have the likely tire sizes and tire RPM's listed, you may still need to calculate RPM if the original tires have been replaced with a different size tire and it is not uncommon to find over sized tires on a truck. Since the formula for determining tire RPM is extremely difficult to find in the Ford service publications or anywhere on the Internet, we thought would make it a little easier. Buying over sized tires for your truck? Here's a little hint: A good tire distributor can provide the tire RPM specification for you! If you kindly ask the tire distributor or sales person for this information when you buy the tires then the measuring and arithmetic wont even be necessary. "Tire Revolutions per Mile" which is the measured number of revolutions for a tire traveling one mile. This can vary with load and inflation and there are a few mathematically confusing methods for arriving at the RPM number. Since we aren't building rocket ships here, we are going to use a simple mathematical equation to arrive at a number. This is also the same formula that Ford has given us to use. To determine the correct revolutions per mile for a tire, simply measure the circumference of the tire using a standard tape measure with the wheel off of the ground. Divide the actual number of the tire circumference in inches onto 63360. Round the number up or down to the nearest whole number. This will be your tire revolutions per mile. For example, a tire with the circumference of 85 inches would have an RPM value of 745. To make this even easier, we have provided a tire RPM calculator for you to use. Enter the tire circumference in inches in the box below and click the "Calculate" button. Enter the tire circumference in inches
  10. 6.0L Air Filter Removal

    The question of how to remove the air filter on 6.0L Diesel equipped trucks is still frequently asked. Instead of continuing to reply to e-mails and forum posts, we finally decided it was time to show you how. The procedure is very simple and it involves removing the filter element, the front and rear covers as an assembly completely from the truck. Trust us, you will like this. Replacing the filter element is much easier when you can do it on a workbench instead of fighting the clips and retainers in the tight confines of the engine compartment. Open the hood and perform these six simple steps: 1 - Loosen the inlet hose clamp but do not remove it. 2 - Remove the radiator de-gas hose then cap, plug or crimp it and set aside. 3 - Disconnect the MAF or IAT sensor. (as equipped) The harness may also be clipped to the filter cover. 4 - Remove the Filter Minder® from the filter cover. 5 - Grab the air tube and remove it from the turbo inlet tube with the loose clamp. You will need to firmly pull up to release the two retainers under the housing from their rubber grommets. Now with the assembly free, slightly rotate it clock-wise while lifting up on the back end. 6 - Rotating the assembly will allow it to clear the coolant bottle but it will be tight. Once clear, it lifts straight up and out. Installing it is as simple as reversing this procedure. Lubricating the rubber retaining grommets under the housing before assembly will make the installation easier. Tech Tip: Applying a very light film of white lithium grease to the rubber seals and the mating surfaces on the end covers will allow the covers to fully seat and properly seal. The image to the right shows the surfaces to be lubricated. This will also help reduce the amount of distortion to the covers although some distortion is normal. In some cases the distortion of the rear cover may exceed the limit of the seal. Inspect the outlet tube to evidence of moisture or water entry that might indicate a poor seal. Replace the cover if necessary or long term turbocharger and engine damage will result. Such damage is NOT covered by the diesel engine warranty.
  11. Diesel Fuel Only

    It's food for your engine and your engine as very picky about what it eats. Your modern diesel engine does not like acids, water and dirt. Therefore you want to be sure the engine is running on clean high quality fuel. When discussing fuel quality and issues related to it, cetane levels and gel points are the typical subjects. We thought it would be good to discuss what is not supposed to be in your fuel for a change. With all of the multiple injector failures and finger pointing regarding the causes, fuel quality is something that is not widely discussed among light truck owners and IT SHOULD BE! We took some samples from customers' vehicles and placed them into test tubes for easy comparison. Let's take a look. Test tube #1 Nice! A sample of good clean fuel. It has a clear light golden color with no contamination settling to the bottom. Other good samples might be even clearer or a little darker. Becoming familiar with the look, feel and odor of good diesel fuel may be valuable in identifying fuel related concerns. For example, gasoline in diesel will still look normal but one sniff will tell the real story! Don't be fooled by appearances alone. Test tube #2 Water. The most common contamination we find. The amber fuel appears slightly cloudy and the water which is heavier than the fuel, settles to the bottom. This is what you want water in your fuel system to do! This allows water to separate and collect in the lowest point in the system for removal. Adding chemicals or additives intended to disperse the water into the fuel will cause damage to the fuel system including pumps, lines and injectors. Keep in mind that the fuel water separator has a limited capacity and ignoring the warning light on the dash may result in water making it's way to the injectors. Test tube #3 Dirt. This contamination was a very fine silt that managed to plug two filters and destroy a fuel pump. The vehicle this sample came from was a tow-in which required a new HFCM, flushing of all fuel lines and the tank was removed and washed. This is an extreme example but it shows how dirt can cause big problems. A vehicle that is operated in very dirty or dusty environments should have it's filters changed more frequently than the recommended 15,000 mile interval. Test tube #4 Questionable. This is a sample of fuel that has been dyed red to indicate that it is for off road use only. There are two concerns with red fuel. Since dyed or marked off-road diesel fuel may contain regular sulfur levels or low sulfur levels it is not approved for highway use as high sulfur levels can damage exhaust emissions components. High levels of sulfur in fuel will also create higher levels of acid in the engine oil which can lead to engine wear and damage. The second reason is that off road fuel is frequently stored in less than ideal conditions or containers and is more likely to pick up contamination. The color can range from a light rosy red to a dark almost blackish red depending on the fuel quality and the amount of dye used to color it. Test tube #5 Suspect. The contamination in this test tube did not settle and the dark color is worthy of concern. Since we can rule out dirt there are two possibilities. The first is that this fuel has had chemicals or waste oil dumped into it. Not good. If the fuel sample were black, oil contamination from the fuel system is possible in a HEUI fuel system. Another viable contaminant is algae also known as sludge. This algae is the result of fuel breakdown caused by age or microbial activity. This is another good reason to keep fuel systems water free because bacteria can live in diesel fuel using the water for an oxygen supply. If someone tells you that you have bugs in your fuel take them seriously! If the filters are clogged with a dark slimy film accompanied by a foul odor, it's algae. Filters It is easy to see by comparing samples that all fuel is not alike. Regular sampling will help identify the quality of the fuel being used and possibly head off potential problems before the start. A good time to do this is to take a sample by draining the fuel/water separator at every oil change. When diagnosing performance concerns fuel samples can be very helpful in telling you things that the customer might not be. Now that we have identified some real life fuel contaminants we need to turn our attention to the fuel filters. Inspecting the elements can also reveal useful evidence. Regardless of the service history, a low fuel pressure reading almost certainly means that you will be pulling the filters for inspection and replacement as necessary. The photo to the right shows an extreme example of dirt contamination that was caused by the fuel sample in test tube number 3 shown above. This 6.0L equipped F350 was towed in for a no-start condition. Apparently the silt in the filters was too much for the fuel pump and it finally overheated and failed. What you are looking at is the engine mounted (secondary) filter and the 4 micron filter cartridge. In the bottom of the housing is a layer of silt that had passed through the HFCM (frame mounted primary) 10 micron filter cartridge along with an o-ring and retainer left behind during a prior filter change. This shows that filter problems can also be man-made in nature. Leave enough parts behind and your new filter may distort and fail to open the fuel valve in the standpipe. We hope this has demonstrated the importance of using high quality filters. Typically OEM filters are the best filters for your engine, designed to fit properly they perform well with the systems in your vehicle. Ensure that your filters meet or exceed the OEM specifications. Compare the primary filters to the left. Filter #1 has a mesh barrier surrounding the pleats of the element and filter #2 does not. This barrier assists in water separation and this is very important for filters installed in the water separator assembly. Owners of 6.0L PSD engines will want to look for this feature on the large (primary) filter in the HFCM and likewise, the engine mounted filter of the 7.3L PSD engine. Other issues related to fuel The use of fuel additives should be minimized as necessary. Use products to lower cloud and gel points properly and NEVER use gasoline to "thin" your winter fuel. This practice will reduce the lubricity of your fuel damaging fuel pumps and injectors. The cetane level, a measurement of the ignition quality of diesel fuel is an important part of fuel quality. Most modern engines run best with a fuel cetane rating of 45 to 50. Use a cetane booster and performance improver if you know or suspect your fuel does not meet those numbers. Engines with COOLED EGR SYSTEMS will benefit from the lower soot levels influenced by higher cetane numbers. Low and Ultra-Low Sulfur fuels already contain additives to retain the necessary lubricity qualities needed in diesel fuel. Adding excessive amounts of lubricity improvers can lead to gumming of internal injector components resulting in poor performance. The use of fuel containing high levels of sulfur may cause inaccurate or inoperative fuel gages on some vehicles due to sulfur build-up on the fuel level sensor. The use of Bio-diesel higher than a 5% blend and fuel containing Methanol, Ketones or Ethanol can also cause problems. It is possible that lining of steel fuel tanks on some 1999 through 2006 F-Series trucks may de laminate Which will clog the pick-up screen and filters. Should this occur, low fuel pressure condition will result. Continuous use of straight Bio-diesel have been known to cause performance issues with some injectors in certain engines. Sticking and slow responding unit injectors have been found to have been used with high levels of Bio-diesel. The term being used to describe this is called "sticktion." Bio-diesel is an effective cleaner. Many owners report that during the initial use of bio-diesel their fuel filters required frequent changing!
  12. 6.0L E-Series Fuel Filter Removal

    Changing the fuel filters on an Econoline with a 6.0L PSD engine? Can you find the secondary filter? Do-it-yourselfers and seasoned professionals alike find this procedure a bit much for such an important service item that must be performed regularly. So when asked "what do I need to remove to change the filter," it was difficult to describe. Here's another illustrated guide to help you access the secondary engine mounted filter. Isn't this fun? Begin by removing the black plastic shroud covering the upper radiator support. You will need to remove the six plastic retainers securing it identified by the WHITE ARROWS. There are only two visible in the picture. Be careful not to round out the plastic screws in the center of the retainers as you turn them counter clock-wise to remove the centers.Remove all of the screws securing the main harness to the cowl. These are the smaller screws identified by the GREEN ARROWS. A 7/32" socket will remove them. Next, remove all of the screws identified by the ORANGE ARROWS. A 5/16" socket will fit them and they secure the MAP sensor, ground strap and the upper power steering reservoir bracket. There are two additional screws securing the power steering bracket to the upper radiator support under the cover that are not shown in the picture. Remove the three screws securing the Power Steering reservoir to the bracket and remove the bracket. Remember to reinstall the fluid fill cap! When all fasteners, cover and the bracket are removed, pull the main harness toward the front of the vehicle and then rotate it up onto the cowl and hold it in place. A bungee cord is the perfect device for that task. See the photo on the left.At this point you now have room to access the filter cover, and replace the filter. You can use a 1/2" ratchet directly in the cap. in the picture below we are using a long handled ratchet with an articulated head. As you can see on the right, there is just enough room to get the filters out and back in. Remember to use the new rubber o-ring on the cap that is supplied with the filter. Lubricate that o-ring and the one inside the filter before installing.
  13. A Word About Filters

    It is not enough to choose the right filters, use good fuel and select the best oil for your truck. These service items require regular attention and they are also subject to inspection and analysis. Looking at the various filters shown below you could conclude that they were neglected and some of them were. Some of the filters were subjected to contamination which affected the entire system. If you regularly change your filters and they look like they are collapsing or folding then you should consider reducing the mileage between service intervals. The oil filter on the left was subjected to more than 10,000 miles of use according to the customer's service records. It is not good for your engine to run with restricted filters because doing so will drastically effect performance, fuel economy and cause internal engine damage. Low fuel pressure below 45 PSI can cause serious damage to 6.0L fuel injectors. Seriously clogged filters and pick-up screens have been known to cause fuel pumps to over heat and fail. Failure to maintain you vehicle will not only cause problems, in some cases it will void the warranty for related repairs. An ounce of prevention is well worth a pound of cure. Please take a good look at these filters. IF your filters and fuel system resemble any of these you need to take action. If your filters look like the ones on the left, reduce your filter change interval. If your fuel system has deposits in the secondary fuel filter housing your truck likely has a very serious contamination problem requiring the entire system to be cleaned. Did you know that most injector failures are now caused by low fuel pressure? Does your engine smoke heavily? Run rough when starting? Lack power? Miss during acceleration at low RPM's? We understand that the price of the filters or a service is a little high but it's much less than a new set of injectors! These are high performance diesel engines - treat them as such. Technicians who observe filters in this condition should advise their customers to change their filters more frequently and explain to them why. Show them their filters - seeing is believing. Here is the official Ford Technician guideline If the vehicle is being used in "Normal Service" the oil and oil filter should be changed every 7,500 miles. The recommend fuel filter change interval is 15,000. If the vehicle is being used in "Severe Operating Conditions", the oil and oil filter should be changed every 5,000 or 200 hours of engine operation whichever comes first. Under "Severe Operating Conditions", the fuel filters should be changed every other oil change, 10,000 miles or 400 hours of engine operation whichever comes first. Severe operating conditions as defined by Ford Towing a trailer or using a camper or car-top carrier Extensive Idling and /or low-speed driving for long distances as in heavy commercial use such as delivery, taxi, patrol, or livery Operating in dusty conditions such as unpaved or dusty roads Off-road operation Use of Bio Diesel, up to and including 5% Bio Diesel (B5) Short trip in cold operating conditions If your filters look anything like this then you should be ashamed!
  14. Turbocharger Reconditioning

    The EVRT (Electronic Variable Response Turbocharger) is also known as a VGT or variable geometry turbocharger. It improves upon turbocharger design by changing the size of the vanes in the turbine housing, allowing control of boost by controlling exhaust turbine inlet pressure. The size of vanes changes positively as engine speed increases. At low engine speeds, the increased pressure generates higher boost than traditional turbine design. The Garrett turbocharger changes exhaust air pressure by using piston to rotate a cam that rotates a unison ring which pivots the vanes. Pivoting these vanes controls the size of the opening between the vanes thus controlling the pressure of the exhaust gasses in the turbine housing. The trouble with this design is that surface rust and carbon build-up can cause the unison ring or the vanes to bind or seize in the housing. The position of the vanes when this occurs will determine whether a low boost or an over boost condition will occur. Typically this requires replacement of the turbocharger however we have discovered that many turbochargers can be successfully reconditioned and returned to service. The technicians that work for International are instructed to recondition turbochargers on the VT-365 engine using service bulletin 201055 which also contains the part number (#03050) for the 3M Resurfacing Kit. On August 10, 2006 Ford motor Company released TSB 06-17-1 which is their version of the turbocharger reconditioning procedure which is slightly different than International's version. Ford wants several inspections performed before any cleaning is to be done and mentions cleaning coking deposits only. Are we to assume that light surface rust mandates replacing the turbo? We feel that this is a valid question considering the number of turbos that are actually sticking due to rust. The TSB also instructs technicians to NOT use an anti-seize compound which a light coating will help protect the metal surfaces from rusting. Your own common sense and best judgment is recommended. Lastly, The TSB requires replacement of the VGT Solenoid which has been revised for improved turbocharger oil control. We thought we would try this procedure and demonstrate it for you. Our results were positive. The first step is to acquire two 3M® 2” finishing disk arbors also supplied in 3M® kit #030050, extra finishing disks, a paint pen, emery paper and some Scuff pads. One of the arbors will need to be ground down to 1" in diameter or a little less. We found that a scraper mounted in a bench vise made quick work of the modification and the disks can be ground down on any hard surface like the edge of a metal work bench. Disassembly Begin by placing the turbo on a bench with the turbine (exhaust) side facing up. It is recommended to cover or, plug or cap the compressor housing openings and the oil passages to protect them from debris. Using the paint pen mark the orientation of the V-clamp and remove the clamp. Next mark the turbine housing to help line up the housing during assembly. Turn the turbocharger over then lift the main assembly off of the turbine housing. You might need to gently tap the housing with a hammer. It is recommended that you mark the location of the slot in the unison ring that mates with the actuator cam for easier assembly. Inspection Once separated it's inspection time. What you see in these pictures is typical of a stuck VGT. Rust and carbon can build-up around the center of the housing where the unison ring is centered. On this particular turbocharger three of the vanes were completely stuck and required a little force to break them free. The photo on the bottom right is an example of excessive rust and scaling. If the turbocharger has a little bit of scaling proceed to the cleaning procedure and inspect for excessive pitting afterwards. Otherwise, replace the turbocharger. Replacement will also be necessary if there is excessive wear of the unison ring or the cam pin. Cleaning Always use a dust mask when cleaning carbon and rust from the turbocharger! With the 2" disk clean the surfaces of the housing including the center where the unison ring is centered. Cleaning the outer edges will allow for easy assembly. Clean the unison ring including the inner and outer ring edges. Using the emery cloth and scuff pads clean the recessed cam area, cam and the pin. Be careful to not heavily gouge or remove metal. The emery cloth and scuff pads are also good for cleaning the posts that the vanes attach to as well as getting into any hard to clean corners. As the cleaning pads wear they will begin to polish out their own scratches and creates a nice smooth surface. Change over to the small 1" cleaning disk and clean the surface of the turbine housing as shown. As for the vanes we recommend using the scuff pad and parts cleaner as available. Do not machine them. When finished, clean all parts with Brakleen and dry with compressed air. Reinstall all of the vanes and adjust them evenly. We found it easier to leave them open and close them to align with the unison ring as it is placed over them. This is where marking the position of the actuator cam on the turbine housing will prove to be helpful when installing the unison ring. Assembly It is recommended that a very light coat of Anti-Seize lubricant be applied to the turbine housing and the inner surface of the unison ring. This is to coat and protect the metal from rusting and not to lubricate the unison ring and vanes. At this time you need to verify the movement of the unison ring and vanes. Play this short video clip. Observe the free movement of the vanes and the change in the opening between them. In Windows Media Player you can slow down the clip to really study the operation. Verify that the actuator cam also move freely. Once satisfied with the restored free movement continue to finish the assembly. Leaving the turbine housing on the bench, lower the turbocharger over the unison ring paying attention to the alignment of both the housing and the cam pin. Reinstall the v-clamp torquing the nut to 160 in-lb, then loosening and re-torquing to 150 in-lb. Reinstall the turbo assembly as per the shop manual using a new oil inlet gasket and drain tube o-rings.
  15. 6.0L EGR Valve Cleaning

    The most current accepted way of dealing with coked EGR valves is to diagnose using the IDS EGR valve test to diagnose EGR valve concerns. Cleaning EGR valves is no longer an approved method of correcting sticking EGR valve concerns as data has shown that the majority of valve continue to perform poorly. Where warranty repairs are concerned any valve that fails testing must be replaced. This article is being maintained for anyone that still wishes to attempt cleaning. EGR valve coking and sticking is not uncommon for the 6.0L Power Stroke diesel engine. An EGR valve that is coked-up, or clogged with carbon deposits, will reduce it's ability to allow exhaust gasses to flow through it when it is opened ultimately reducing it's effectiveness. These deposits may also cause the valve pintle to stick or operate slowly making accurate control of the valve impossible. Should these conditions exist several driveability concerns may result. This includes lack of power, smoking, surging and the check engine light may illuminate accompanied by DTC's P0401, P0402, P0404 or P1335. EGR valve diagnosis may lead to the removal and inspection of the valve. The photo on the right is an example of a clogged valve. Several Technical Service Bulletins have been released concerning EGR valves and whether to clean them or replace them. If the valve shows signs of excessive coking the root cause of the coking must be identified and corrected and the valve should be replaced. Cleaning of the EGR bore and the intake manifold may also be required. See the article EGR Servicing for more details. Begin cleaning the valve by scraping out the bulk of the carbon with a pick or small screwdriver and a stiff nylon brush. The photo on the left also shows the weep holes indicated by the red arrow. DO NOT allow cleaning chemicals to enter these holes as damage to the actuator and the seals will result. Holding the valve in an upright position is a good method for keeping any chemicals or debris from entering the valve. Remove the o-rings and the gasket as indicated by the blue arrows in the photo to the right and discard them. Take care not to gouge the o-ring grooves or damage the valve. Submerge the valve in carburetor cleaner, Motorcraft part number PM-3, allowing the fluid level to only reach just below the base of the actuator. This is where not allowing fluid into the weep holes is critical! The photo on the left shows the maximum level the fluid should reach as indicated by the green arrow. Holding the valve open by placing an object between the valve and seat will allow the cleaner to clean the seats of the valve. Soak the valve as long as necessary to remove the remaining carbon. removing to clean with the nylon brush occasionally will speed-up the process. Final cleaning may be done by rinsing the valve with Injector Cleaner, Motorcraft Part number PM-2. When clean, use compressed air or wipe the valve dry. Install new o-rings and base gasket supplied in the o-ring kit, Ford part number 3C3Z-9P455-AB, and re-install the valve. From this point, continue with diagnostics, verify the valve range and movement, clear all codes and retest. If the valve fails the range and movement test or otherwise fails electrically, replace the valve. Always road test the vehicle to verify the repair.
  16. Diesel Particulate Filters

    A diesel particulate filter, also known as a DPF, is an emissions reduction device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gases of a diesel engine. This particulate matter is the byproduct of incomplete combustion mostly made up of unburned hydrocarbons (Hc) and the non-combustible residue of lubricating oils. These particles also provide a vehicle for the many trace chemicals that are also produced by diesel fuel and the combustion process which are known to cause environmental problems and believed to cause public health issues. The DPF is designed to physically trap, store and then oxidize or burn off particulate matter effectively reducing particulate matter emissions. This process of burning off the collected particles is called regeneration. What remains after the regeneration process is ash which is the noncombustible residue of engine lubricating oil. The use of ultra low sulfur fuel (ULSD) and low phosphate engine oils is required on DPF equipped engines. Sulfur and phosphates will foul the DPF quickly causing performance loss and dramatically reducing the life of the DPF. It is important to note that the chemistry shown is simplified to show the basic function. The chemistry that takes place in an after treatment system is complex, varies between manufacturers and is still being explored. You need to understand that the process of burning off the particulate matter and determining what chemicals and gasses that exit the tail pipe involves several chemical reactions, not just heat. In fact, depending on the chemical changes that take place, the temperatures require to burn off particulate matter can be reduced. Most after treatment systems combine a diesel oxidation catalyst or a diesel oxidation converter with the DPF and both may be"catalyst-coated." The application of a base, or precious metal coating, to the surface of the catalyst and the filter will alter the chemistry of the exhaust that can reduce the ignition temperature necessary for oxidation of the particulate matter. This passively burns off some of the soot during normal operation of the vehicle and helps in reducing the volume of soot that reaches the DPF. Used in-line with a DPF, a diesel oxidation catalyst will also help boost exhaust temperatures required for active regeneration. A system like that of the 6.4L PSD, extra fuel is added to the exhaust gasses by injecting fuel into the cylinders during the exhaust stroke. The added fuel is burned off in the catalyst effectively raising the exhaust temperature to heat the DPF during active regeneration. Worth noting- Urea injection, also called Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), works by an ammonia-like acid being injected into a special catalyst to reduce NOx in diesel emissions. This will further complicate after treatment systems and increase maintenance for the operator in that urea it will add another fluid to be regularly maintained. The Regulated Diesel Emissions Particulate Matter (PM) - carbon from incomplete combustion - soluble organic fractions from fuel and lubricating oils - sulfates formed from the sulfur in the fuel Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) - composed of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Hydrocarbons (HC) - regulated either as total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) or as non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Visible Smoke How It Works There are different types of DPF's but the most common type is a double walled flow through design made with a cordierite core. This core is similar to a full flow catalytic converter honeycomb design with half of the channels blocked at the inlet and the other half blocked at the outlet forcing the exhaust gasses to flow though the walls between the channels. As the exhaust gasses flow though the walls, the particulate matter is trapped where it remains until it is burned off during regeneration. After regeneration, the resulting minute amount of ash remains where over time it too will build up and require removal. Ash removal can only be done manually which requires removal of the DPF to be cleaned in a reverse flow machine designed to remove ash and collect it for proper disposal. The substrate cores of both catalytic converters and particulate filters are similar in composition and construction. 6.4L Catalyst (Oxi-Cat) Take A Closer Look The core on the left reveals the open passages of a catalytic converter which exhaust gasses flow directly through. On the right, the alternating pattern of blocked passages in the core of a particulate filter is quite apparent. The opposite ends of the open cores is blocked off and the opposite ends of the blocked passages are open. This means that exhaust gasses enter the open passages and must pass through the substrate to the alternating passages and exit out the other end. 6.4L DPF (Particulate Filter) Wall Flow Technology The image to the right shows how the exhaust enters the DPF, flows through the substrate which filters the particulate matter and allows the filtered exhaust to exit the other end. Regeneration Regeneration is the process of burning the collected soot trapped by the DPF. This process restores or maintains the DPF's ability to allow exhaust gasses to flow through it while preserving engine performance and efficiency. Regeneration is achieved by elevating the exhaust temperature in the DPF to around 600ºC (1112ºF). The type and method of regeneration an engine is equipped with is largely determined by the way it is used and the conditions it is intended to be used. Most on highway and off road diesel vehicles will require some type of active regeneration capability. If back pressure caused by the collected soot is allowed to get to high, damage to the engine and the DPF itself will result. The use of low sulfur fuel and low ash oil is required for use in a DPF equipped vehicle otherwise the DPF will become clogged quickly causing frequent regenerations and decreasing the lifespan of the filter. Inside the DPF The image above shows the heated exhaust entering the DPF. The hot exhaust gasses heat the DPF substrate igniting the soot that has collected and built up in the cells. When regeneration is complete, all that remains is a tiny amount of ash. This process effectively restores the flow through the cell walls, or regenerating its ability to do so. Regeneration Types Passive - regeneration takes place while driving when engine load elevates exhaust temperatures enough to burn small amounts of soot. These temperatures can range from 200ºC (392ºF) to nearly 600ºC (1112ºF) and requires no action from the driver or engine control system. Active - regeneration can occur while driving or when the vehicle is not moving and the engine is idling to burn large amounts of soot. Active regeneration is initiated by the engine control software when regeneration is determined to be required and only when certain conditions are met. Typical exhaust temperatures will range from around 400ºC (752ºF) to more than 600ºC (1112ºF) and requires no action from the driver. Passive/Active - regeneration is a combination of both types of regeneration. Due to varying engine cycles and inconsistent exhaust temperatures, passive regeneration alone is not capable of burning all of the soot produced and it slowly builds up. Periodic active regeneration is necessary to clean the DPF when the engine control software determines it is needed. Manual - regeneration is essentially the same as active regeneration however it is typically initiated using a diagnostic tool by a technician for service or diagnostic purposes. Some manufactures of medium and heavy duty trucks will allow a driver to manually disable regeneration if conditions are not favorable. These vehicles are equipped with a disable switch and some will also have a force regen switch to manually initiate regeneration when certain conditions are met. Regeneration Methods Dosing - or HC combustion, is a method of raising exhaust temperature for regeneration by introducing fuel to the exhaust where it reacts with an oxidation catalyst before it enters the DPF. This is done by enriching the combustion process, injecting fuel during the exhaust stroke or by injecting fuel directly into the exhaust. This is a common method and it is a fairly simple way to achieve elevated exhaust temperatures but it does have some drawbacks. Dosing can allow unburned fuel to pass through the system known as hydrocarbon slip. Secondly, temperatures cannot be as closely controlled as other methods. Use of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur maximum) is required in diesel vehicles equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter (OC) and diesel particulate filter. Using low sulfur (16-500 ppm) or high sulfur (500 ppm or greater) diesel fuel can effectively poison the catalyst destroying it, rendering it useless. ARD - or After treatment Regeneration Device which is an exhaust component that creates heat for regeneration. There are many different types of ARD's but they all do the same thing. A self contained component that meters fuel with an injector, has its own supply of air for combustion and a method for igniting the injected fuel. These types of systems are controlled by the engine control system and can be very complex which raises the cost of the engine and requires additional maintenance. The advantages of this type of system are complete control of exhaust temperatures and it can regenerate under a wide range of conditions. An ARD is more commonly used on larger, medium and heavy duty applications. DPF Cleaning The ash that remains in the DPF after regeneration is a very small amount of matter but it will build up eventually reducing the DPF's capacity and performance. The EPA regulation mandates DPF's must allow a nominal 150,000 mile interval for ash cleaning. When high mileage is reached and regenerations become more frequent, the engine control software may also detect that the DPF requires cleaning or replacement. The ash can only be removed by physical means such as washing, pulsed or swirled compressed air. Depending on the type of DPF and the manufacturer, a high temperature baking process may also be utilized. The machines that are used to remove ash are expensive and may not be widely available. Some manufacturers like Ford for example will offer an exchange program where a dirty DPF is removed from a vehicle and a DPF that was removed from another vehicle and has been serviced and certified is installed in its place. Large fleets or busy service centers will find having one to be cost effective. Using The Proper Engine Oil And Fuel All 2007 and newer diesel engines equipped with DPF systems require the use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel fuel (ULSD) and engine lubricating oil that meets CJ-4 specifications. Ash, phosphorus, and sulfur, which are commonly found in the exhaust of internal combustion engines, comes directly from the oil and fuel and can cause damage to after treatment devices. The required fuels and oils have been refined and formulated to remove most of these contaminants making them safe to use with after treatment systems. Exposure to such contaminants is known as "poisoning." It is important to use ULSD and CJ-4 oil together. Switching to CJ-4 oil while still using LSD 500 ppm fuel will allow the buildup of sulfuric acid which could cause serious oil deterioration and possible engine damage. The use of CI-4 in a new engine could increase regeneration intervals and shorten the life of a DPF requiring frequent ash removal. ASH from the lubricant can potentially block the pores of the diesel particulate filter, leading to an increase in back pressure. This can have a negative impact on fuel economy and power. Excessive amounts of ash in the filter can cause reactions and high temperatures that can lead to permanent damage to the DPF substrate. Phosphorus can reduce the efficiency of catalysts in exhaust after treatment systems. Catalysts used in these exhaust after treatment devices can include metals such as platinum, rhodium, or palladium. Phosphorus can render catalysts and DPF's useless by blocking these metal coatings causing irreversible damage that accumulates over time. Sulfur itself does not permanently damage the DPF but it will increase hydrocarbon, oxide of nitrogen and particulate matter emissions enough to clog the DPF in a relatively short time. In the United States, ULSD fuel is defined as having less than 15 ppm sulfur content. DPF Failures Failures of the after treatment can range from a check engine light to a plugged system that will prevent an engine from running. These faults can be the result of a fuel injection concern, or a base engine failure that has loaded or contaminated the system. It is also possible to detect a system that has been tampered with or modified by monitoring the temperature and pressure sensors however a simple visual inspection is all you need to perform to know that the Diesel Particulate Filter or after treatment system is not functioning as designed. Since it's primary function is to eliminate soot from the exhaust, finding soot in the tail pipe or observing heavy smoke is a positive sign that the system is not working. Some minor staining may be considered normal but if you see a tail pipe that looks like the one pictured then something is wrong. That may be the only indication if the fault is a crack in the substrate. The picture shows the result of a broken DPF that has either cracked or has broken loose and is no longer anchored and sealed to the metal case. This article may be revised as more examples and conditions are documented.
  17. One Piece 6.0L HPOP Connector

    Since the redesign of the high pressure oil pump for 2005 and newer Power Stroke diesel engines the "snap-to-connect" or STC fitting used to connect the high pressure oil pump to the oil supply branch tube has been problematic. The two piece fittings have a tendency to flex causing wear on the seal and the locking ring resulting in leaks and occasionally the complete separation of the fitting. When a leak occurs at this fitting, the engine may be difficult to start or may not start at all. Depending on the severity of the leak the engine may stall, sometimes abruptly and without warning. A repair kit was developed containing a replacement fitting, connector and a bracket that supported the assembly preventing any movement of the branch tube and connector. That kit has since been replaced. A new fitting shown below has been designed is a one piece connector most likely intended to address this issue for production engines. As of the date of this article, the fitting is available to International dealers and service departments but has not been released by Ford Motor Company as a service part however we have heard that this fitting will replace the STC bracket. The new connector is reported to be in production 4.5L and 6.0L Power Strokes for 2008 model year LCF trucks and Econoline along with the International VT-275 and the VT-365. The 6.0L Power Stroke diesel engine remains as an engine option for the 2008 Econoline. Part Numbers Ford Part# 4C3Z-9B246-E International Part# 1879930c91 The fitting is installed in production engines starting from: V8 engines: Engine ser# 431736 on 2/9/07. V6 engines: Engine ser# 431705 on 2/8/07.
  18. Cab Bolt Removal

    2008 and newer Ford Super Duty trucks are designed to allow cab removal on trucks equipped with diesel engines. Cab off repairs are the preferred method of accessing the engine and making repairs because there is not adequate room in the engine compartment to properly perform many procedures and confidently access and torque fasteners. The bolts that secure the cab to the frame are mounted from under the vehicle and mate with cage nuts welded to the inside of the cab structure. For safety reasons, a thread locking compound is applied to the body bolts which prevents the bolts from loosening and falling out of the vehicle. The photo to the right shows the bolts with the blue thread locker along with the melted remains of an orange plastic clip that holds the bolts in place during production. The torque required to overcome the thread locking compound that is applied to the threads of the bolts can cause the cage nuts to fail if removed using pneumatic tools. Many technicians have discovered that heating the bolts prior to removing them will soften the thread lock compound which will reduce the amount of torque required to loosen them. The bolts MUST be removed and installed using hand tools only. Always check for related Technical Service Bulletins for updated repair instructions and warranty information. Left: To soften the thread locking compound carefully apply heat to the bolt head then wait one or two minutes for the heat to travel up the bolt. DO NOT use air tools, remove the bolts by hand. Right: The cage nut for the body bolts that breaks loose shown in good condition. The nut, if aggressively torqued, can spread the cage that holds it causing it to spin preventing removal of the bolt.
  19. 6.4L HPFP Cover Gasket Wiring

    Some 2008 F-Super Duty vehicles with 6.4L Power Stroke Diesel engines built before August 20, 2007 may experience a check engine light on, a lack of power or no start condition. The affected vehicles have engines that were assembled using a fuel pump cover gasket that has unprotected wiring that may chafe on the fuel pump causing a grounded circuit. See photo on the right. The circuits involved are the power supply and the control circuit for the volume control solenoid. A grounded circuit will cause driveability concerns and may set DTC's P0003, P0004 and P0091. Technicians servicing the vehicle may also discover fuse #74 at the battery junction box open which is the VPWR circuit for several engine components including the Volume Control Valve(VCV), Pressure Control Valve (PCP), Glow Plug Control Module (GPCM), EGR Throttle Plate Valve, Electronic Fan Clutch, Turbo Charger Actuator and the Mass Air Flow sensor(MAF). On December 13, 2007 Ford issued TSB 07-26-2 which provides the part number for the new fuel pump gasket. Below are the old gasket on the left and the new gasket on the right. The new gasket has added protective tubing over the VCV wiring. Owners and technicians should understand that the repair procedure to replace this gasket requires cab removal or removal of the transmission to complete. As always, check for technical service bulletins for updated repair and diagnostic instructions, parts requirements and warranty information. Caution! Remember to cut the silicone sealant at the rear cover to cylinder block junction before removing the gasket to prevent damage to the rear engine cover seal.
  20. High Pressure Fuel Lines

    The 3.2L, 6.4L and 6.7 Power Stroke diesel engines have a high pressure common rail fuel system that differs from the HEUI systems previous Power Stroke engines used. Engine oil under high pressure is no longer used to actuate the fuel injectors by pressurizing the fuel inside of the injector. In a common rail system, fuel is pressurized by a high pressure fuel pump capable of exceeding 30,000 PSI. When combined with the piezo fuel injectors and a powerful fuel management system the result is improved emissions compliance, power and efficiency along with reducing engine noise. By definition a common rail fuel system pressurizes fuel in a single fuel pump separate from the injectors, stores and delivers it. We will use the 6.4L Power Stroke Diesel engine in our examples. The 6.4L Power Stroke diesel engine has a high pressure common rail fuel system that differs from the HEUI systems previous Power Stroke engines used. Engine oil under high pressure is no longer used to actuate the fuel injectors by pressurizing the fuel inside of the injector. In a common rail system, fuel is pressurized by a high pressure fuel pump capable of exceeding 30,000 PSI. When combined with the piezo fuel injectors and a powerful fuel management system the result is improved emissions compliance, power and efficiency along with reducing engine noise. By definition a common rail fuel system pressurizes fuel in a single fuel pump separate from the injectors, stores and delivers it. In the 6.4L Power Stroke Diesel engine there is a fuel supply rail on each cylinder head and each fuel injector is connected to the fuel rail with its own fuel supply line. The fuel lines are of specific importance for a couple of reasons. Because of the high pressures, a leak anywhere in the system can cause problems for both man and machine. Should you come into contact with this high pressure fuel it will penetrate your skin and enter your blood stream. This will damage flesh, cause infection, poison your blood and even cause death. Always use extreme caution when working around high pressure fuel lines while an engine is running and even after it is shut down and has not had ample time to bleed down fuel pressure. For the engine, a leak anywhere inside the engine will cause fuel to mix with the engine lubricating oil. This will reduce the oil's viscosity and lower its lubricating qualities. As the oil dilutes with fuel, its level will rise within the crankcase causing performance concerns and eventually engine failure. WARNING! All of the steel fuel lines that are used to transfer high pressure fuel from the high pressure fuel pump to the fuel rails on each cylinder head and the lines connecting to each fuel injector are for one time use only! Anytime one of these lines is disturbed (loosened or removed) for any reason they MUST be replaced! Lets take a closer look. Comparing the fuel lines shown above you should notice the difference between the new fuel line and the used fuel line. The used line has been crushed and molded to fit tightly inside the fitting it was mated to. This is evident by the visible shiny ring on the flared end where the seal was actually made. The new fuel line is uncrushed and does not have a ring around the flare. Since the used line is already crushed and conformed to a fitting a new seal cannot be effectively formed therefore the line is not reusable. PROPER ASSEMBLY IS CRUCIAL! Once all fuel system components are installed and properly tightened the high pressure lines can be installed. To start they need to be installed hand tight. Slightly rocking them while tightening the nuts will help ensure the lines are "square" in the fittings ensuring proper alignment of the fuel line to the components but more importantly, the back of the flare is seated inside the nut. Once assembled the nuts are torqued to an initial, low value. As shown in the pictures above this is done using an adapter which will require the torque value on the torque wrench to be recalculated and set. Use this TORQUE CALCULATOR to find the correct setting for your torque wrench and adapter. You should also note that the injector lines can be tricky to tighten with the engine in chassis or the cab still installed. Using an extension has been discussed in our member forums and doing so at the low torque specs required is not considered to be an issue. Unfortunately, you will have to do whatever is necessary to set the initial torque setting and finding the correct combination and angle can become frustrating. Continuing to follow the workshop instructions, the next step is to mark each fitting with a marker as well as a reference line one point in the direction the fitting is tightened. The final step is to tighten the fitting 1/6 of a turn or one flat. This will properly set crush the flare end into the fitting and create a high pressure seal. It is important to perform the high pressure leak test using a scan too. If performing this test and visually inspecting for leaks ALWAYS USE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT INJURY FROM HIGH PRESSURE FUEL. Wear safety glasses and NEVER use your hand/fingers to look for leaks.
  21. Compression Bubble Test

    Diagnosing engine performance concerns can be a complex process. Making an accurate diagnosis and performing an effective repair involves identifying the root cause of the failure and not just the failed part. Ford and Navistar engineers and service technicians have developed techniques and procedures that help diagnose and identify the root causes of failures and performance concerns. One such procedure is the Balloon Test which is used to detect combustion leaks into the fuel system on 6.0L diesel engines. These combustion leaks indicate that a fuel injector has internally failed and is allowing combustion gasses to pass through it or the that the injector has loosened allowing combustion gasses to leak around it. Both failures cause combustion gasses to enter the fuel supply system and displace fuel resulting in cylinder misfires, power loss and even stalling. If a loose injector condition exists long enough, the copper seal at the tip of the injector that seals it to the cylinder head and the rubber seals that seal off the fuel supply ports will eventually burn and fail. This may also result in fuel leaking directly into the cylinder and hydro lock the engine. These types of failures usually start out with an engine running rough. If you are lucky there will be cylinder contribution codes to point you to a cylinder or cylinder bank. There may also be camshaft and crankshaft codes set if the engine has been stalling and misfiring heavily. Along with the basic diagnostic tests, a technician will perform a power balance test that displays low or non contributing cylinders. This test is also useful in seeing how other cylinders are affected. The display below is a screen shot of a power balance test. This example indicates the cylinders 1, 3, 5 and 7 which are all in the same cylinder head are misfiring as indicated by the low spikes. Cylinders 2, 4, 6 and 8 are compensating as indicated by the high spikes. An engine that is running properly will show a relatively flat line across the green base marker line. If electrical testing does not indicate a failure the most likely cause is a fuel supply issue. In this example, a problem exists in cylinder bank #1. A combustion leak is suspected. Disassembly and inspection revealed that injector #3 was loose and the seals had burned away. The Balloon Test is the desired method for detecting combustion leaks according to Ford but this test has led many technicians to mis-diagnose a concern because it fails to detect small leaks. To see positive results you must observe pulses in a deflated balloon. If you are lucky. It is extremely rare that a balloon will actually inflate so don't expect to see that happen. Small leaks are virtually undetectable using the balloon test. There is a better way. For better results try the Compression Bubble Test Simply remove the secondary filter cap and filter, then top off the housing with fuel just above the standpipe. Using a remote starter switch, crank the engine with the IGNITION KEY IN THE OFF POSITION. Observe the filter housing watching for any air bubbles coming from the standpipe. The motion of the engine cranking may make bubbles difficult to see. Stop cranking the engine and residual bubbles may still be seen for a few seconds. The presence of air bubbles indicates that a combustion leak exists but this will not help identify a particular cylinder or cylinder bank. Sometimes The power balance display can help identify which cylinder is suspect but as you can see in the example above a failed injector can and usually does affect the entire cylinder bank. To identify exactly which injector is is leaking remove the glow plugs one at a time then crank the engine while again observing the secondary fuel filter housing for bubbles. When the bubbles no longer appear in the fuel you have identified the causal injector. If you have performed the Balloon Test you will find this method much easier and more effective. Save the balloons for a party.
  22. 6.0L Power Stroke Oil Coolers

    An engine oil cooler is a heat exchanger that transfers heat from engine oil to the cooling system of an engine during operation. The engine oil coolers in Ford 6.0L Power Stroke diesel engines have come under a lot of scrutiny because of their relationship with the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers which have a high failure rate. The EGR coolers are also heat exchangers that cool exhaust gasses being recirculated to the intake manifold for Nox emission reduction. The relationship between these two coolers is that coolant flows through the oil cooler and then directly into the EGR cooler. The oil cooler can in time, become restricted and engine coolant no longer flows enough to effectively remove heat from the EGR cooler. The EGR cooler then overheats and eventually cracks causing engine coolant to enter the exhaust system and exhaust gasses to enter the cooling system during operation. Below is a cutaway view of a 6.0L Power Stroke Diesel engine oil cooler core exposing the alternating passages where engine coolant and oil flow. It is easy to identify that the passages are narrow, the structure is of thin aluminum and there are many layers to the cooler that allow for the efficient exchange of heat. Any buildup of sludge or deposits within the cooler will first reduce it's efficiency by insulating the surface of the metal from the fluids. When the buildup becomes great, coolant flow becomes restricted and does not allow sufficient coolant to flow through to the EGR cooler reducing it's ability to remove heat. Below is a close-up of a high mileage cooler cross section showing the restrictive deposits. Proper maintenance is important for cooling systems to ensure the proper freeze protection but more importantly for Power Stroke engines, the nitrite concentration. Nitrites are some of the most effective corrosion inhibitors for iron and the prevention of cavitation damage. Nitrite additives deplete quickly and cooled EGR diesel engines are particularly hard on coolant because of the extreme high temperatures the EGR coolers expose the coolant to. Cooling system maintenance is now considered to be more crucial than ever in maintaining your engine which includes regular testing and regulating of nitrite levels. Doing so will greatly reduce the formation of rust. When servicing the coolant it is also important to include flushing and back flushing using a chemical iron cleaner to remove depleted layers of additives, corrosion and build-up within the system and refilling the system with the correct coolant type and strength. A non-OEM coolant bypass filtration system may help reduce the amount of contaminants that accumulate in the cooling system and there are several on the market to choose from. This raises the question as to whether the OEM's of light duty trucks should be adding coolant filters to their diesel engines? The image below shows some sludge that was drained from an oil cooler which was dried resulting in the powdery substance shown on the right. What does that look like to you? It almost entirely sticks to a magnet. Yes, it is ferrous material. This is proof that proper cooling system maintenance is crucial to the performance and reliability of your Power Stroke Diesel engine.
  23. Cavitation Erosion

    Cavitation erosion is a phenomenon that is well known with relation to diesel engines. Cavitation is the formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapor pressure. Erosion is the result of the formed vapor bubbles rapidly collapsing which produces a shock wave that can remove small amounts of metal from cylinder walls. As this process repeats pitting of the metal will occur and over time holes will form. Irregularities in the metal surfaces from casting or machining and the cavities from the erosion process itself encourage the formation of these vapor bubbles. As coolant flows through an engine it will travel through passages and in places where the passages restrict such as in between cylinder walls and the cylinder block casting low pressure areas are induced. This is known as the Venturi effect: the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted path. These low pressure areas lower the boiling point of the coolant which encourages the formation of vapor bubbles or "cavities." In addition, the rapid flexing of the cylinder walls from compression and ignition induce alternating low and high pressure in the coolant against the cylinder wall. The low pressure waves further induce the formation of bubbles and the high pressure waves cause the bubbles to collapse. This creates a high velocity jet of water that removes a small amount of metal from the cylinder wall. Below is a depiction of the collapse of a vapor bubble in relation to pressure and the resulting jet of coolant. Another way cavitation can occur is when a pump blade or vane moves faster than the fluid it is moving. This action creates a low pressure area where air pockets can form. When the fluid is hot enough as in the case of an engine cooling system, the coolant can boil in this low pressure area. As an impeller's (in a pump) or propeller's (as in the case of a ship or submarine) blades move through a fluid, low-pressure areas are formed as the fluid accelerates around and moves past the blades. The faster the blades move, the lower the pressure around it can become. As it reaches vapor pressure, the fluid vaporizes and forms small bubbles of gas. This is cavitation. When the bubbles collapse later, they typically cause very strong local shock waves in the fluid, which may even damage the blades. On the bottom right is an example of a front engine cover that has been damaged by cavitation where the water pump is mounted. It is possible to prevent this from happening with the use of chemical additives in the cooling fluid that form a protective layer on the cylinder wall. This layer will be exposed to the same cavitation, but rebuilds itself. When this occurs the implosion attacks the protective coating on the metal surface. This coating is a coolant additive commonly referred to as "DCA" (diesel coolant additive) or "SCA" (supplemental coolant additive) of which the most common types are nitrite or borate salt. Ford diesel equipped trucks require nitrite. Cavitation Examples A wet cylinder liner from a Caterpillar diesel engine with severe erosion of the cylinder wall. Notice that the cavitation runs along a line from top to bottom where coolant pressure is lowest. The cavitation is also notably heavier hear the top where compression and ignition pressures are highest. The parent bore cylinder wall of a 7.3L Power Stroke diesel engine with cavitation. Again note that the perforations in the cylinder wall are near the top and outboard edge of the cylinder closest to the outer cylinder block wall. Pump cavitation that eroded the front engine cover of a 6.4L Power Stroke diesel engine. Though the result is the same, this type of cavitation erosion is pump induced. Improper system filling and bleeding is believed to be the cause where air pockets in the system affect system pressure.
  24. Fuel Coagulation

    It is, or should be common practice for technicians to drain the fuel water separator during regular services. We have discovered that some drain valves have failed to allow fuel and water to drain and in some cases the valves leaked from the vent at the top of the valve instead. We have once again discovered that water is reacting with the fuel, or something in the fuel, creating a whitish, greasy substance that builds up in the collection bowl. This substance does not flow and cannot be removed by draining the water separator. Below is a close up image of a water collection chamber in a HFCM from a 2009 Super Duty truck with a 6.4L PSD engine. The red arrow is showing the water sensor. The result is reduced water collection capacity, blocked water drain valve ports, continuous water in fuel (WIF) warning light illumination and possibly an inoperative WIF light due to contamination of the WIF sensor. In a worst case scenario these conditions could allow water to pass to the engine fuel system causing driveability concerns, damage to the fuel injection system and even catastrophic engine failure. If you encounter a 2008 or newer Super Duty truck with a 6.4L engine that has a fuel water separator drain issue or a repeat WIF light concern it might be a good idea to remove the fuel conditioning module (HFCM) manifold to inspect the collection bowl for this substance and clean it out. Be aware that the rubber HFCM manifold gasket may have swollen or stretched and cannot be re-used. It is important to note that fuel samples from the affected trucks we have seen appeared to be clean ULSD but were not analyzed by a laboratory. If you are going to service the water separator you need to remove the manifold cover and the rubber gasket usually swells or sticks causing it to stretch. Whether the water in fuel sensor is actually fouled or just needs a light cleaning, removing it usually damages it preventing it from locking in place and sealing properly. Use these part numbers as needed: 8C3Z-9276-A - Gasket and Hardware Kit 8C3Z-9C264-A - Water In Fuel Sensor As for cleaning out the water collection chamber it is best to begin by simply scooping out as much as you can with a finger, wooden dowel or a small screwdriver with a rag. Combustion chamber cleaner can be helpful in breaking down residual paraffin or Brakleen has proven effective as well. Finish up with compressed air and reassemble with a new gasket, bolts and sensor as required.
  25. 6.4L Fuel System Debris Inspection

    The fuel system debris test is vitally important in diagnosing performance concerns as well as engine failures on 6.4L Power Stroke Diesel engines. The test is intended to find debris from the HPFP (high pressure fuel pump) by opening the fuel supply lines at the fuel injectors and draining fuel from the lines and the supply manifold. The debris which is typically small shiny metal particles is created in the fuel pump. In severe failures the debris may be a dark silt-like substance that can pass through the injectors and return to the secondary filter housing after passing through the fuel cooler. For this reason it is wise to take two fuel samples during the initial diagnostic pre-checks. One sample from the HFCM (the frame mounted Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module) and a second from the test port on the fuel cooler. When taking a sample at the injectors use a black cap from an aerosol spray can. The dark color of the cap will contrast the bright metal particles nicely as seen in the photo on the right. You may then pass the sample through a light colored paper such as a paper napkin or a coffee filter to check for darker colored debris. The test is straight forward. Remove the valve covers following the Workshop Manual, read and understand all safety warnings regarding fuel system pressure and procedures. Start with any misfiring cylinders or cylinders with high fuel trims above 10% positive or negative. Slightly loosen the feed tube at the fuel manifold enough to allow the tube to rotate when disconnected at the injector. Then disconnect the fuel supply tube at the injector and place the collection cup/cap under the fitting and move the tube away from the injector fitting. Loosen the injector tube at the manifold to allow fuel to drain into the cup. Keep in mind that the fuel lines must be replaced once the fittings are loosened. Don't drain the manifold as you will likely want to take samples from the other injectors. Set the cup down for a few minutes to allow any particles to settle then you can drain off dome of the fuel and inspect for debris. Collecting a fuel sample directly from an injector supply tube for inspection. Regardless of whether or not you find debris in the high pressure fuel system your inspections are not complete. disconnecting the fuel lines at the HPFP, cylinder heads and the supply system will allow you to inspect the fittings, banjo bolts and the fuel lines for rust as seen below. You can easily identify rust on the HPFP inlet fittings as well as on the inside of the high pressure outlet fittings. Rust can only mean one thing. Water. At this point a complete inspection of the fuel system is necessary including the fuel tank(s), fuel water separator and the WIF indicating system. For warranty purposes a fuel sample and analysis will likely be required to test for fuel with low lubricity and, contaminants like water, gasoline and other various chemicals that do not belong in diesel fuel. The presence of alcohol which allows water to disperse for example will indicate that unapproved fuel additives are being used. Under most circumstances fuel related fuel system failures are not covered by warranty. Remove the fuel lines at the high pressure fuel pump fittings and inspect for rust. Rust on an injector at the return port area is undeniable evidence of water in the fuel. There is no question that this injector is internally damaged. Inspect the inside of the fuel line banjo fittings for rust indicating the presence of water or dark debris that could indicate a high pressure fuel pump failure. On the right: More undeniable evidence of water in the fuel. The fuel line fitting bolts are as rusty and corroded as they are on the outside. Inspect for rust or corrosion on and inside of the fuel line fitting bolts. These bolts also known as "banjo bolts" are used in the fitting shown above to the right.
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