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  1. Fuel Additive Bottle Caps

    We have heard of this unfortunate and easy to make mistake. You want to take care of your truck and use products that can help promote good fuel quality and system integrity which includes a variety of fuel system additives. Typically these products come in small bottles that have caps containing a coated cardboard disc inside of the cap intended to provide a seal. Apparently these discs are not adequately secured to the cap and may remain stuck to the top of the bottle. If you are not observant and begin pouring your product into the fuel filler of your truck and this seal is stuck to the top of the bottle it may come loose as soon as the liquid begins to flow taking the cap into the fuel tank along with it. So what you say and there is probably all sorts of junk floating about inside you fuel tank? Well, there have been many reports of 2011 and newer Super Duty trucks that have been stopped in their tracks when these seemingly harmless discs get pulled up against the fuel pick up causing a restriction resulting in low fuel pressure and an engine stalling event. When this happens there will be a loud whining sound coming from the fuel supply pump and a low fuel pressure warning on the instrument cluster. This condition will likely be an intermittent and random concern making it very difficult to verify and diagnose therefore you should keep this in mind. And for the vehicle owner reading this, remember to look at your additive bottle before pouring. It just may save you and a technician some headaches.
  2. 6.0L Block Heater Cord

    Finding the factory installed block heater connector is difficult because it is tucked behind the bumper. Installing a block heater cord is equally difficult. At one time, all Ford trucks equipped with diesel engines with block heaters came with the power cord and plug. For the 2005 model year, production vehicles were no longer automatically equipped with the cord even though the engine manufacturer, International Truck and Engine Corporation, installed the heater element in all of the engines. The power cord is available as an option and it will be on any truck ordered with one but the connector has proven difficult to locate for many owners. If you are trying to install one in a truck that is not equipped, you will likely need assistance on determining the proper routing. An improperly routed and secured cable is susceptible to damage and failure. This is an illustrated guide to assist you. Looking at the starter motor (right) you can easily locate the block heater element installed in the cylinder block just above. You can easily access this from underneath the truck though you will not be able to easily see it. The orange power cord is routed behind the right engine mount along with the main battery cable and the automatic transmission cooler lines. (if equipped) If you are installing a new cord, you will have to install the cord from just below the air conditioning compressor and feed it from the front towards the back. (below) This view (left) is of the front of the engine looking at the right frame rail and the A/C compressor. The white arrow is pointing out the block heater cord so that you can follow it. This is also where you want to feed the heater element end of the cord from. Notice that the cord and the battery cable route down and under the transmission cooler lines just behind the remote transmission filter assembly and up along the frame rail. The Block heater cord then goes over the frame to the outboard edge of the frame which is now on the outside of the inner fender well which is missing in the photograph. From the right fender well over the tire and wheel, the cord runs along the outside of the frame in a rigid plastic tube. Both ends of the tube are secured to the frame with a plastic push type pin that is taped to it. You will now need to push the cord back under the plastic wheel well (not shown) and behind the front bumper. The photo on the left shows the right frame rail and the back of the bumper. This is where the cord is found on trucks that have them installed from the factory. If your fingers are nimble enough you can reach in on the left factory fog lamp opening and pull it out. Doing this usually rips the cord from the anchor pins that are taped to it. This is actually a good thing because getting those anchors out is extremely difficult and they become useless at this point anyway. Once the cord is free and the tie strap is removed you can route the plug through the grille opening or the more preferred routing is through the right fog lamp opening and secure it to the right tow hook with the connector cap. Removing the anchor pins from the harness frees-up a nice length of cord that can be pulled out of the bumper when in use. Final Note: Coat the plug and pack the inside of the plug cap with Silicone Electrical Grease (available from your dealer or Motorcraft supplier) to protect the electrical contacts from exposure from the elements and road salt.
  3. 6.0L Air Filter Removal

    The question of how to remove the air filter on 6.0L Diesel equipped trucks is still frequently asked. Instead of continuing to reply to e-mails and forum posts, we finally decided it was time to show you how. The procedure is very simple and it involves removing the filter element, the front and rear covers as an assembly completely from the truck. Trust us, you will like this. Replacing the filter element is much easier when you can do it on a workbench instead of fighting the clips and retainers in the tight confines of the engine compartment. Open the hood and perform these six simple steps: 1 - Loosen the inlet hose clamp but do not remove it. 2 - Remove the radiator de-gas hose then cap, plug or crimp it and set aside. 3 - Disconnect the MAF or IAT sensor. (as equipped) The harness may also be clipped to the filter cover. 4 - Remove the Filter Minder® from the filter cover. 5 - Grab the air tube and remove it from the turbo inlet tube with the loose clamp. You will need to firmly pull up to release the two retainers under the housing from their rubber grommets. Now with the assembly free, slightly rotate it clock-wise while lifting up on the back end. 6 - Rotating the assembly will allow it to clear the coolant bottle but it will be tight. Once clear, it lifts straight up and out. Installing it is as simple as reversing this procedure. Lubricating the rubber retaining grommets under the housing before assembly will make the installation easier. Tech Tip: Applying a very light film of white lithium grease to the rubber seals and the mating surfaces on the end covers will allow the covers to fully seat and properly seal. The image to the right shows the surfaces to be lubricated. This will also help reduce the amount of distortion to the covers although some distortion is normal. In some cases the distortion of the rear cover may exceed the limit of the seal. Inspect the outlet tube to evidence of moisture or water entry that might indicate a poor seal. Replace the cover if necessary or long term turbocharger and engine damage will result. Such damage is NOT covered by the diesel engine warranty.
  4. Diesel Fuel Only

    It's food for your engine and your engine as very picky about what it eats. Your modern diesel engine does not like acids, water and dirt. Therefore you want to be sure the engine is running on clean high quality fuel. When discussing fuel quality and issues related to it, cetane levels and gel points are the typical subjects. We thought it would be good to discuss what is not supposed to be in your fuel for a change. With all of the multiple injector failures and finger pointing regarding the causes, fuel quality is something that is not widely discussed among light truck owners and IT SHOULD BE! We took some samples from customers' vehicles and placed them into test tubes for easy comparison. Let's take a look. Test tube #1 Nice! A sample of good clean fuel. It has a clear light golden color with no contamination settling to the bottom. Other good samples might be even clearer or a little darker. Becoming familiar with the look, feel and odor of good diesel fuel may be valuable in identifying fuel related concerns. For example, gasoline in diesel will still look normal but one sniff will tell the real story! Don't be fooled by appearances alone. Test tube #2 Water. The most common contamination we find. The amber fuel appears slightly cloudy and the water which is heavier than the fuel, settles to the bottom. This is what you want water in your fuel system to do! This allows water to separate and collect in the lowest point in the system for removal. Adding chemicals or additives intended to disperse the water into the fuel will cause damage to the fuel system including pumps, lines and injectors. Keep in mind that the fuel water separator has a limited capacity and ignoring the warning light on the dash may result in water making it's way to the injectors. Test tube #3 Dirt. This contamination was a very fine silt that managed to plug two filters and destroy a fuel pump. The vehicle this sample came from was a tow-in which required a new HFCM, flushing of all fuel lines and the tank was removed and washed. This is an extreme example but it shows how dirt can cause big problems. A vehicle that is operated in very dirty or dusty environments should have it's filters changed more frequently than the recommended 15,000 mile interval. Test tube #4 Questionable. This is a sample of fuel that has been dyed red to indicate that it is for off road use only. There are two concerns with red fuel. Since dyed or marked off-road diesel fuel may contain regular sulfur levels or low sulfur levels it is not approved for highway use as high sulfur levels can damage exhaust emissions components. High levels of sulfur in fuel will also create higher levels of acid in the engine oil which can lead to engine wear and damage. The second reason is that off road fuel is frequently stored in less than ideal conditions or containers and is more likely to pick up contamination. The color can range from a light rosy red to a dark almost blackish red depending on the fuel quality and the amount of dye used to color it. Test tube #5 Suspect. The contamination in this test tube did not settle and the dark color is worthy of concern. Since we can rule out dirt there are two possibilities. The first is that this fuel has had chemicals or waste oil dumped into it. Not good. If the fuel sample were black, oil contamination from the fuel system is possible in a HEUI fuel system. Another viable contaminant is algae also known as sludge. This algae is the result of fuel breakdown caused by age or microbial activity. This is another good reason to keep fuel systems water free because bacteria can live in diesel fuel using the water for an oxygen supply. If someone tells you that you have bugs in your fuel take them seriously! If the filters are clogged with a dark slimy film accompanied by a foul odor, it's algae. Filters It is easy to see by comparing samples that all fuel is not alike. Regular sampling will help identify the quality of the fuel being used and possibly head off potential problems before the start. A good time to do this is to take a sample by draining the fuel/water separator at every oil change. When diagnosing performance concerns fuel samples can be very helpful in telling you things that the customer might not be. Now that we have identified some real life fuel contaminants we need to turn our attention to the fuel filters. Inspecting the elements can also reveal useful evidence. Regardless of the service history, a low fuel pressure reading almost certainly means that you will be pulling the filters for inspection and replacement as necessary. The photo to the right shows an extreme example of dirt contamination that was caused by the fuel sample in test tube number 3 shown above. This 6.0L equipped F350 was towed in for a no-start condition. Apparently the silt in the filters was too much for the fuel pump and it finally overheated and failed. What you are looking at is the engine mounted (secondary) filter and the 4 micron filter cartridge. In the bottom of the housing is a layer of silt that had passed through the HFCM (frame mounted primary) 10 micron filter cartridge along with an o-ring and retainer left behind during a prior filter change. This shows that filter problems can also be man-made in nature. Leave enough parts behind and your new filter may distort and fail to open the fuel valve in the standpipe. We hope this has demonstrated the importance of using high quality filters. Typically OEM filters are the best filters for your engine, designed to fit properly they perform well with the systems in your vehicle. Ensure that your filters meet or exceed the OEM specifications. Compare the primary filters to the left. Filter #1 has a mesh barrier surrounding the pleats of the element and filter #2 does not. This barrier assists in water separation and this is very important for filters installed in the water separator assembly. Owners of 6.0L PSD engines will want to look for this feature on the large (primary) filter in the HFCM and likewise, the engine mounted filter of the 7.3L PSD engine. Other issues related to fuel The use of fuel additives should be minimized as necessary. Use products to lower cloud and gel points properly and NEVER use gasoline to "thin" your winter fuel. This practice will reduce the lubricity of your fuel damaging fuel pumps and injectors. The cetane level, a measurement of the ignition quality of diesel fuel is an important part of fuel quality. Most modern engines run best with a fuel cetane rating of 45 to 50. Use a cetane booster and performance improver if you know or suspect your fuel does not meet those numbers. Engines with COOLED EGR SYSTEMS will benefit from the lower soot levels influenced by higher cetane numbers. Low and Ultra-Low Sulfur fuels already contain additives to retain the necessary lubricity qualities needed in diesel fuel. Adding excessive amounts of lubricity improvers can lead to gumming of internal injector components resulting in poor performance. The use of fuel containing high levels of sulfur may cause inaccurate or inoperative fuel gages on some vehicles due to sulfur build-up on the fuel level sensor. The use of Bio-diesel higher than a 5% blend and fuel containing Methanol, Ketones or Ethanol can also cause problems. It is possible that lining of steel fuel tanks on some 1999 through 2006 F-Series trucks may de laminate Which will clog the pick-up screen and filters. Should this occur, low fuel pressure condition will result. Continuous use of straight Bio-diesel have been known to cause performance issues with some injectors in certain engines. Sticking and slow responding unit injectors have been found to have been used with high levels of Bio-diesel. The term being used to describe this is called "sticktion." Bio-diesel is an effective cleaner. Many owners report that during the initial use of bio-diesel their fuel filters required frequent changing!
  5. 6.0L E-Series Fuel Filter Removal

    Changing the fuel filters on an Econoline with a 6.0L PSD engine? Can you find the secondary filter? Do-it-yourselfers and seasoned professionals alike find this procedure a bit much for such an important service item that must be performed regularly. So when asked "what do I need to remove to change the filter," it was difficult to describe. Here's another illustrated guide to help you access the secondary engine mounted filter. Isn't this fun? Begin by removing the black plastic shroud covering the upper radiator support. You will need to remove the six plastic retainers securing it identified by the WHITE ARROWS. There are only two visible in the picture. Be careful not to round out the plastic screws in the center of the retainers as you turn them counter clock-wise to remove the centers.Remove all of the screws securing the main harness to the cowl. These are the smaller screws identified by the GREEN ARROWS. A 7/32" socket will remove them. Next, remove all of the screws identified by the ORANGE ARROWS. A 5/16" socket will fit them and they secure the MAP sensor, ground strap and the upper power steering reservoir bracket. There are two additional screws securing the power steering bracket to the upper radiator support under the cover that are not shown in the picture. Remove the three screws securing the Power Steering reservoir to the bracket and remove the bracket. Remember to reinstall the fluid fill cap! When all fasteners, cover and the bracket are removed, pull the main harness toward the front of the vehicle and then rotate it up onto the cowl and hold it in place. A bungee cord is the perfect device for that task. See the photo on the left.At this point you now have room to access the filter cover, and replace the filter. You can use a 1/2" ratchet directly in the cap. in the picture below we are using a long handled ratchet with an articulated head. As you can see on the right, there is just enough room to get the filters out and back in. Remember to use the new rubber o-ring on the cap that is supplied with the filter. Lubricate that o-ring and the one inside the filter before installing.
  6. 6.0L EGR Valve Cleaning

    The most current accepted way of dealing with coked EGR valves is to diagnose using the IDS EGR valve test to diagnose EGR valve concerns. Cleaning EGR valves is no longer an approved method of correcting sticking EGR valve concerns as data has shown that the majority of valve continue to perform poorly. Where warranty repairs are concerned any valve that fails testing must be replaced. This article is being maintained for anyone that still wishes to attempt cleaning. EGR valve coking and sticking is not uncommon for the 6.0L Power Stroke diesel engine. An EGR valve that is coked-up, or clogged with carbon deposits, will reduce it's ability to allow exhaust gasses to flow through it when it is opened ultimately reducing it's effectiveness. These deposits may also cause the valve pintle to stick or operate slowly making accurate control of the valve impossible. Should these conditions exist several driveability concerns may result. This includes lack of power, smoking, surging and the check engine light may illuminate accompanied by DTC's P0401, P0402, P0404 or P1335. EGR valve diagnosis may lead to the removal and inspection of the valve. The photo on the right is an example of a clogged valve. Several Technical Service Bulletins have been released concerning EGR valves and whether to clean them or replace them. If the valve shows signs of excessive coking the root cause of the coking must be identified and corrected and the valve should be replaced. Cleaning of the EGR bore and the intake manifold may also be required. See the article EGR Servicing for more details. Begin cleaning the valve by scraping out the bulk of the carbon with a pick or small screwdriver and a stiff nylon brush. The photo on the left also shows the weep holes indicated by the red arrow. DO NOT allow cleaning chemicals to enter these holes as damage to the actuator and the seals will result. Holding the valve in an upright position is a good method for keeping any chemicals or debris from entering the valve. Remove the o-rings and the gasket as indicated by the blue arrows in the photo to the right and discard them. Take care not to gouge the o-ring grooves or damage the valve. Submerge the valve in carburetor cleaner, Motorcraft part number PM-3, allowing the fluid level to only reach just below the base of the actuator. This is where not allowing fluid into the weep holes is critical! The photo on the left shows the maximum level the fluid should reach as indicated by the green arrow. Holding the valve open by placing an object between the valve and seat will allow the cleaner to clean the seats of the valve. Soak the valve as long as necessary to remove the remaining carbon. removing to clean with the nylon brush occasionally will speed-up the process. Final cleaning may be done by rinsing the valve with Injector Cleaner, Motorcraft Part number PM-2. When clean, use compressed air or wipe the valve dry. Install new o-rings and base gasket supplied in the o-ring kit, Ford part number 3C3Z-9P455-AB, and re-install the valve. From this point, continue with diagnostics, verify the valve range and movement, clear all codes and retest. If the valve fails the range and movement test or otherwise fails electrically, replace the valve. Always road test the vehicle to verify the repair.
  7. Diesel Particulate Filters

    A diesel particulate filter, also known as a DPF, is an emissions reduction device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gases of a diesel engine. This particulate matter is the byproduct of incomplete combustion mostly made up of unburned hydrocarbons (Hc) and the non-combustible residue of lubricating oils. These particles also provide a vehicle for the many trace chemicals that are also produced by diesel fuel and the combustion process which are known to cause environmental problems and believed to cause public health issues. The DPF is designed to physically trap, store and then oxidize or burn off particulate matter effectively reducing particulate matter emissions. This process of burning off the collected particles is called regeneration. What remains after the regeneration process is ash which is the noncombustible residue of engine lubricating oil. The use of ultra low sulfur fuel (ULSD) and low phosphate engine oils is required on DPF equipped engines. Sulfur and phosphates will foul the DPF quickly causing performance loss and dramatically reducing the life of the DPF. It is important to note that the chemistry shown is simplified to show the basic function. The chemistry that takes place in an after treatment system is complex, varies between manufacturers and is still being explored. You need to understand that the process of burning off the particulate matter and determining what chemicals and gasses that exit the tail pipe involves several chemical reactions, not just heat. In fact, depending on the chemical changes that take place, the temperatures require to burn off particulate matter can be reduced. Most after treatment systems combine a diesel oxidation catalyst or a diesel oxidation converter with the DPF and both may be"catalyst-coated." The application of a base, or precious metal coating, to the surface of the catalyst and the filter will alter the chemistry of the exhaust that can reduce the ignition temperature necessary for oxidation of the particulate matter. This passively burns off some of the soot during normal operation of the vehicle and helps in reducing the volume of soot that reaches the DPF. Used in-line with a DPF, a diesel oxidation catalyst will also help boost exhaust temperatures required for active regeneration. A system like that of the 6.4L PSD, extra fuel is added to the exhaust gasses by injecting fuel into the cylinders during the exhaust stroke. The added fuel is burned off in the catalyst effectively raising the exhaust temperature to heat the DPF during active regeneration. Worth noting- Urea injection, also called Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), works by an ammonia-like acid being injected into a special catalyst to reduce NOx in diesel emissions. This will further complicate after treatment systems and increase maintenance for the operator in that urea it will add another fluid to be regularly maintained. The Regulated Diesel Emissions Particulate Matter (PM) - carbon from incomplete combustion - soluble organic fractions from fuel and lubricating oils - sulfates formed from the sulfur in the fuel Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) - composed of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Hydrocarbons (HC) - regulated either as total hydrocarbon emissions (THC) or as non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Visible Smoke How It Works There are different types of DPF's but the most common type is a double walled flow through design made with a cordierite core. This core is similar to a full flow catalytic converter honeycomb design with half of the channels blocked at the inlet and the other half blocked at the outlet forcing the exhaust gasses to flow though the walls between the channels. As the exhaust gasses flow though the walls, the particulate matter is trapped where it remains until it is burned off during regeneration. After regeneration, the resulting minute amount of ash remains where over time it too will build up and require removal. Ash removal can only be done manually which requires removal of the DPF to be cleaned in a reverse flow machine designed to remove ash and collect it for proper disposal. The substrate cores of both catalytic converters and particulate filters are similar in composition and construction. 6.4L Catalyst (Oxi-Cat) Take A Closer Look The core on the left reveals the open passages of a catalytic converter which exhaust gasses flow directly through. On the right, the alternating pattern of blocked passages in the core of a particulate filter is quite apparent. The opposite ends of the open cores is blocked off and the opposite ends of the blocked passages are open. This means that exhaust gasses enter the open passages and must pass through the substrate to the alternating passages and exit out the other end. 6.4L DPF (Particulate Filter) Wall Flow Technology The image to the right shows how the exhaust enters the DPF, flows through the substrate which filters the particulate matter and allows the filtered exhaust to exit the other end. Regeneration Regeneration is the process of burning the collected soot trapped by the DPF. This process restores or maintains the DPF's ability to allow exhaust gasses to flow through it while preserving engine performance and efficiency. Regeneration is achieved by elevating the exhaust temperature in the DPF to around 600ºC (1112ºF). The type and method of regeneration an engine is equipped with is largely determined by the way it is used and the conditions it is intended to be used. Most on highway and off road diesel vehicles will require some type of active regeneration capability. If back pressure caused by the collected soot is allowed to get to high, damage to the engine and the DPF itself will result. The use of low sulfur fuel and low ash oil is required for use in a DPF equipped vehicle otherwise the DPF will become clogged quickly causing frequent regenerations and decreasing the lifespan of the filter. Inside the DPF The image above shows the heated exhaust entering the DPF. The hot exhaust gasses heat the DPF substrate igniting the soot that has collected and built up in the cells. When regeneration is complete, all that remains is a tiny amount of ash. This process effectively restores the flow through the cell walls, or regenerating its ability to do so. Regeneration Types Passive - regeneration takes place while driving when engine load elevates exhaust temperatures enough to burn small amounts of soot. These temperatures can range from 200ºC (392ºF) to nearly 600ºC (1112ºF) and requires no action from the driver or engine control system. Active - regeneration can occur while driving or when the vehicle is not moving and the engine is idling to burn large amounts of soot. Active regeneration is initiated by the engine control software when regeneration is determined to be required and only when certain conditions are met. Typical exhaust temperatures will range from around 400ºC (752ºF) to more than 600ºC (1112ºF) and requires no action from the driver. Passive/Active - regeneration is a combination of both types of regeneration. Due to varying engine cycles and inconsistent exhaust temperatures, passive regeneration alone is not capable of burning all of the soot produced and it slowly builds up. Periodic active regeneration is necessary to clean the DPF when the engine control software determines it is needed. Manual - regeneration is essentially the same as active regeneration however it is typically initiated using a diagnostic tool by a technician for service or diagnostic purposes. Some manufactures of medium and heavy duty trucks will allow a driver to manually disable regeneration if conditions are not favorable. These vehicles are equipped with a disable switch and some will also have a force regen switch to manually initiate regeneration when certain conditions are met. Regeneration Methods Dosing - or HC combustion, is a method of raising exhaust temperature for regeneration by introducing fuel to the exhaust where it reacts with an oxidation catalyst before it enters the DPF. This is done by enriching the combustion process, injecting fuel during the exhaust stroke or by injecting fuel directly into the exhaust. This is a common method and it is a fairly simple way to achieve elevated exhaust temperatures but it does have some drawbacks. Dosing can allow unburned fuel to pass through the system known as hydrocarbon slip. Secondly, temperatures cannot be as closely controlled as other methods. Use of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur maximum) is required in diesel vehicles equipped with an oxidation catalytic converter (OC) and diesel particulate filter. Using low sulfur (16-500 ppm) or high sulfur (500 ppm or greater) diesel fuel can effectively poison the catalyst destroying it, rendering it useless. ARD - or After treatment Regeneration Device which is an exhaust component that creates heat for regeneration. There are many different types of ARD's but they all do the same thing. A self contained component that meters fuel with an injector, has its own supply of air for combustion and a method for igniting the injected fuel. These types of systems are controlled by the engine control system and can be very complex which raises the cost of the engine and requires additional maintenance. The advantages of this type of system are complete control of exhaust temperatures and it can regenerate under a wide range of conditions. An ARD is more commonly used on larger, medium and heavy duty applications. DPF Cleaning The ash that remains in the DPF after regeneration is a very small amount of matter but it will build up eventually reducing the DPF's capacity and performance. The EPA regulation mandates DPF's must allow a nominal 150,000 mile interval for ash cleaning. When high mileage is reached and regenerations become more frequent, the engine control software may also detect that the DPF requires cleaning or replacement. The ash can only be removed by physical means such as washing, pulsed or swirled compressed air. Depending on the type of DPF and the manufacturer, a high temperature baking process may also be utilized. The machines that are used to remove ash are expensive and may not be widely available. Some manufacturers like Ford for example will offer an exchange program where a dirty DPF is removed from a vehicle and a DPF that was removed from another vehicle and has been serviced and certified is installed in its place. Large fleets or busy service centers will find having one to be cost effective. Using The Proper Engine Oil And Fuel All 2007 and newer diesel engines equipped with DPF systems require the use of Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel fuel (ULSD) and engine lubricating oil that meets CJ-4 specifications. Ash, phosphorus, and sulfur, which are commonly found in the exhaust of internal combustion engines, comes directly from the oil and fuel and can cause damage to after treatment devices. The required fuels and oils have been refined and formulated to remove most of these contaminants making them safe to use with after treatment systems. Exposure to such contaminants is known as "poisoning." It is important to use ULSD and CJ-4 oil together. Switching to CJ-4 oil while still using LSD 500 ppm fuel will allow the buildup of sulfuric acid which could cause serious oil deterioration and possible engine damage. The use of CI-4 in a new engine could increase regeneration intervals and shorten the life of a DPF requiring frequent ash removal. ASH from the lubricant can potentially block the pores of the diesel particulate filter, leading to an increase in back pressure. This can have a negative impact on fuel economy and power. Excessive amounts of ash in the filter can cause reactions and high temperatures that can lead to permanent damage to the DPF substrate. Phosphorus can reduce the efficiency of catalysts in exhaust after treatment systems. Catalysts used in these exhaust after treatment devices can include metals such as platinum, rhodium, or palladium. Phosphorus can render catalysts and DPF's useless by blocking these metal coatings causing irreversible damage that accumulates over time. Sulfur itself does not permanently damage the DPF but it will increase hydrocarbon, oxide of nitrogen and particulate matter emissions enough to clog the DPF in a relatively short time. In the United States, ULSD fuel is defined as having less than 15 ppm sulfur content. DPF Failures Failures of the after treatment can range from a check engine light to a plugged system that will prevent an engine from running. These faults can be the result of a fuel injection concern, or a base engine failure that has loaded or contaminated the system. It is also possible to detect a system that has been tampered with or modified by monitoring the temperature and pressure sensors however a simple visual inspection is all you need to perform to know that the Diesel Particulate Filter or after treatment system is not functioning as designed. Since it's primary function is to eliminate soot from the exhaust, finding soot in the tail pipe or observing heavy smoke is a positive sign that the system is not working. Some minor staining may be considered normal but if you see a tail pipe that looks like the one pictured then something is wrong. That may be the only indication if the fault is a crack in the substrate. The picture shows the result of a broken DPF that has either cracked or has broken loose and is no longer anchored and sealed to the metal case. This article may be revised as more examples and conditions are documented.
  8. One Piece 6.0L HPOP Connector

    Since the redesign of the high pressure oil pump for 2005 and newer Power Stroke diesel engines the "snap-to-connect" or STC fitting used to connect the high pressure oil pump to the oil supply branch tube has been problematic. The two piece fittings have a tendency to flex causing wear on the seal and the locking ring resulting in leaks and occasionally the complete separation of the fitting. When a leak occurs at this fitting, the engine may be difficult to start or may not start at all. Depending on the severity of the leak the engine may stall, sometimes abruptly and without warning. A repair kit was developed containing a replacement fitting, connector and a bracket that supported the assembly preventing any movement of the branch tube and connector. That kit has since been replaced. A new fitting shown below has been designed is a one piece connector most likely intended to address this issue for production engines. As of the date of this article, the fitting is available to International dealers and service departments but has not been released by Ford Motor Company as a service part however we have heard that this fitting will replace the STC bracket. The new connector is reported to be in production 4.5L and 6.0L Power Strokes for 2008 model year LCF trucks and Econoline along with the International VT-275 and the VT-365. The 6.0L Power Stroke diesel engine remains as an engine option for the 2008 Econoline. Part Numbers Ford Part# 4C3Z-9B246-E International Part# 1879930c91 The fitting is installed in production engines starting from: V8 engines: Engine ser# 431736 on 2/9/07. V6 engines: Engine ser# 431705 on 2/8/07.
  9. Cab Bolt Removal

    2008 and newer Ford Super Duty trucks are designed to allow cab removal on trucks equipped with diesel engines. Cab off repairs are the preferred method of accessing the engine and making repairs because there is not adequate room in the engine compartment to properly perform many procedures and confidently access and torque fasteners. The bolts that secure the cab to the frame are mounted from under the vehicle and mate with cage nuts welded to the inside of the cab structure. For safety reasons, a thread locking compound is applied to the body bolts which prevents the bolts from loosening and falling out of the vehicle. The photo to the right shows the bolts with the blue thread locker along with the melted remains of an orange plastic clip that holds the bolts in place during production. The torque required to overcome the thread locking compound that is applied to the threads of the bolts can cause the cage nuts to fail if removed using pneumatic tools. Many technicians have discovered that heating the bolts prior to removing them will soften the thread lock compound which will reduce the amount of torque required to loosen them. The bolts MUST be removed and installed using hand tools only. Always check for related Technical Service Bulletins for updated repair instructions and warranty information. Left: To soften the thread locking compound carefully apply heat to the bolt head then wait one or two minutes for the heat to travel up the bolt. DO NOT use air tools, remove the bolts by hand. Right: The cage nut for the body bolts that breaks loose shown in good condition. The nut, if aggressively torqued, can spread the cage that holds it causing it to spin preventing removal of the bolt.
  10. High Pressure Fuel Lines

    The 3.2L, 6.4L and 6.7 Power Stroke diesel engines have a high pressure common rail fuel system that differs from the HEUI systems previous Power Stroke engines used. Engine oil under high pressure is no longer used to actuate the fuel injectors by pressurizing the fuel inside of the injector. In a common rail system, fuel is pressurized by a high pressure fuel pump capable of exceeding 30,000 PSI. When combined with the piezo fuel injectors and a powerful fuel management system the result is improved emissions compliance, power and efficiency along with reducing engine noise. By definition a common rail fuel system pressurizes fuel in a single fuel pump separate from the injectors, stores and delivers it. We will use the 6.4L Power Stroke Diesel engine in our examples. The 6.4L Power Stroke diesel engine has a high pressure common rail fuel system that differs from the HEUI systems previous Power Stroke engines used. Engine oil under high pressure is no longer used to actuate the fuel injectors by pressurizing the fuel inside of the injector. In a common rail system, fuel is pressurized by a high pressure fuel pump capable of exceeding 30,000 PSI. When combined with the piezo fuel injectors and a powerful fuel management system the result is improved emissions compliance, power and efficiency along with reducing engine noise. By definition a common rail fuel system pressurizes fuel in a single fuel pump separate from the injectors, stores and delivers it. In the 6.4L Power Stroke Diesel engine there is a fuel supply rail on each cylinder head and each fuel injector is connected to the fuel rail with its own fuel supply line. The fuel lines are of specific importance for a couple of reasons. Because of the high pressures, a leak anywhere in the system can cause problems for both man and machine. Should you come into contact with this high pressure fuel it will penetrate your skin and enter your blood stream. This will damage flesh, cause infection, poison your blood and even cause death. Always use extreme caution when working around high pressure fuel lines while an engine is running and even after it is shut down and has not had ample time to bleed down fuel pressure. For the engine, a leak anywhere inside the engine will cause fuel to mix with the engine lubricating oil. This will reduce the oil's viscosity and lower its lubricating qualities. As the oil dilutes with fuel, its level will rise within the crankcase causing performance concerns and eventually engine failure. WARNING! All of the steel fuel lines that are used to transfer high pressure fuel from the high pressure fuel pump to the fuel rails on each cylinder head and the lines connecting to each fuel injector are for one time use only! Anytime one of these lines is disturbed (loosened or removed) for any reason they MUST be replaced! Lets take a closer look. Comparing the fuel lines shown above you should notice the difference between the new fuel line and the used fuel line. The used line has been crushed and molded to fit tightly inside the fitting it was mated to. This is evident by the visible shiny ring on the flared end where the seal was actually made. The new fuel line is uncrushed and does not have a ring around the flare. Since the used line is already crushed and conformed to a fitting a new seal cannot be effectively formed therefore the line is not reusable. PROPER ASSEMBLY IS CRUCIAL! Once all fuel system components are installed and properly tightened the high pressure lines can be installed. To start they need to be installed hand tight. Slightly rocking them while tightening the nuts will help ensure the lines are "square" in the fittings ensuring proper alignment of the fuel line to the components but more importantly, the back of the flare is seated inside the nut. Once assembled the nuts are torqued to an initial, low value. As shown in the pictures above this is done using an adapter which will require the torque value on the torque wrench to be recalculated and set. Use this TORQUE CALCULATOR to find the correct setting for your torque wrench and adapter. You should also note that the injector lines can be tricky to tighten with the engine in chassis or the cab still installed. Using an extension has been discussed in our member forums and doing so at the low torque specs required is not considered to be an issue. Unfortunately, you will have to do whatever is necessary to set the initial torque setting and finding the correct combination and angle can become frustrating. Continuing to follow the workshop instructions, the next step is to mark each fitting with a marker as well as a reference line one point in the direction the fitting is tightened. The final step is to tighten the fitting 1/6 of a turn or one flat. This will properly set crush the flare end into the fitting and create a high pressure seal. It is important to perform the high pressure leak test using a scan too. If performing this test and visually inspecting for leaks ALWAYS USE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT INJURY FROM HIGH PRESSURE FUEL. Wear safety glasses and NEVER use your hand/fingers to look for leaks.
  11. Compression Bubble Test

    Diagnosing engine performance concerns can be a complex process. Making an accurate diagnosis and performing an effective repair involves identifying the root cause of the failure and not just the failed part. Ford and Navistar engineers and service technicians have developed techniques and procedures that help diagnose and identify the root causes of failures and performance concerns. One such procedure is the Balloon Test which is used to detect combustion leaks into the fuel system on 6.0L diesel engines. These combustion leaks indicate that a fuel injector has internally failed and is allowing combustion gasses to pass through it or the that the injector has loosened allowing combustion gasses to leak around it. Both failures cause combustion gasses to enter the fuel supply system and displace fuel resulting in cylinder misfires, power loss and even stalling. If a loose injector condition exists long enough, the copper seal at the tip of the injector that seals it to the cylinder head and the rubber seals that seal off the fuel supply ports will eventually burn and fail. This may also result in fuel leaking directly into the cylinder and hydro lock the engine. These types of failures usually start out with an engine running rough. If you are lucky there will be cylinder contribution codes to point you to a cylinder or cylinder bank. There may also be camshaft and crankshaft codes set if the engine has been stalling and misfiring heavily. Along with the basic diagnostic tests, a technician will perform a power balance test that displays low or non contributing cylinders. This test is also useful in seeing how other cylinders are affected. The display below is a screen shot of a power balance test. This example indicates the cylinders 1, 3, 5 and 7 which are all in the same cylinder head are misfiring as indicated by the low spikes. Cylinders 2, 4, 6 and 8 are compensating as indicated by the high spikes. An engine that is running properly will show a relatively flat line across the green base marker line. If electrical testing does not indicate a failure the most likely cause is a fuel supply issue. In this example, a problem exists in cylinder bank #1. A combustion leak is suspected. Disassembly and inspection revealed that injector #3 was loose and the seals had burned away. The Balloon Test is the desired method for detecting combustion leaks according to Ford but this test has led many technicians to mis-diagnose a concern because it fails to detect small leaks. To see positive results you must observe pulses in a deflated balloon. If you are lucky. It is extremely rare that a balloon will actually inflate so don't expect to see that happen. Small leaks are virtually undetectable using the balloon test. There is a better way. For better results try the Compression Bubble Test Simply remove the secondary filter cap and filter, then top off the housing with fuel just above the standpipe. Using a remote starter switch, crank the engine with the IGNITION KEY IN THE OFF POSITION. Observe the filter housing watching for any air bubbles coming from the standpipe. The motion of the engine cranking may make bubbles difficult to see. Stop cranking the engine and residual bubbles may still be seen for a few seconds. The presence of air bubbles indicates that a combustion leak exists but this will not help identify a particular cylinder or cylinder bank. Sometimes The power balance display can help identify which cylinder is suspect but as you can see in the example above a failed injector can and usually does affect the entire cylinder bank. To identify exactly which injector is is leaking remove the glow plugs one at a time then crank the engine while again observing the secondary fuel filter housing for bubbles. When the bubbles no longer appear in the fuel you have identified the causal injector. If you have performed the Balloon Test you will find this method much easier and more effective. Save the balloons for a party.
  12. Cavitation Erosion

    Cavitation erosion is a phenomenon that is well known with relation to diesel engines. Cavitation is the formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapor pressure. Erosion is the result of the formed vapor bubbles rapidly collapsing which produces a shock wave that can remove small amounts of metal from cylinder walls. As this process repeats pitting of the metal will occur and over time holes will form. Irregularities in the metal surfaces from casting or machining and the cavities from the erosion process itself encourage the formation of these vapor bubbles. As coolant flows through an engine it will travel through passages and in places where the passages restrict such as in between cylinder walls and the cylinder block casting low pressure areas are induced. This is known as the Venturi effect: the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted path. These low pressure areas lower the boiling point of the coolant which encourages the formation of vapor bubbles or "cavities." In addition, the rapid flexing of the cylinder walls from compression and ignition induce alternating low and high pressure in the coolant against the cylinder wall. The low pressure waves further induce the formation of bubbles and the high pressure waves cause the bubbles to collapse. This creates a high velocity jet of water that removes a small amount of metal from the cylinder wall. Below is a depiction of the collapse of a vapor bubble in relation to pressure and the resulting jet of coolant. Another way cavitation can occur is when a pump blade or vane moves faster than the fluid it is moving. This action creates a low pressure area where air pockets can form. When the fluid is hot enough as in the case of an engine cooling system, the coolant can boil in this low pressure area. As an impeller's (in a pump) or propeller's (as in the case of a ship or submarine) blades move through a fluid, low-pressure areas are formed as the fluid accelerates around and moves past the blades. The faster the blades move, the lower the pressure around it can become. As it reaches vapor pressure, the fluid vaporizes and forms small bubbles of gas. This is cavitation. When the bubbles collapse later, they typically cause very strong local shock waves in the fluid, which may even damage the blades. On the bottom right is an example of a front engine cover that has been damaged by cavitation where the water pump is mounted. It is possible to prevent this from happening with the use of chemical additives in the cooling fluid that form a protective layer on the cylinder wall. This layer will be exposed to the same cavitation, but rebuilds itself. When this occurs the implosion attacks the protective coating on the metal surface. This coating is a coolant additive commonly referred to as "DCA" (diesel coolant additive) or "SCA" (supplemental coolant additive) of which the most common types are nitrite or borate salt. Ford diesel equipped trucks require nitrite. Cavitation Examples A wet cylinder liner from a Caterpillar diesel engine with severe erosion of the cylinder wall. Notice that the cavitation runs along a line from top to bottom where coolant pressure is lowest. The cavitation is also notably heavier hear the top where compression and ignition pressures are highest. The parent bore cylinder wall of a 7.3L Power Stroke diesel engine with cavitation. Again note that the perforations in the cylinder wall are near the top and outboard edge of the cylinder closest to the outer cylinder block wall. Pump cavitation that eroded the front engine cover of a 6.4L Power Stroke diesel engine. Though the result is the same, this type of cavitation erosion is pump induced. Improper system filling and bleeding is believed to be the cause where air pockets in the system affect system pressure.
  13. 6.4L Fuel System Debris Inspection

    The fuel system debris test is vitally important in diagnosing performance concerns as well as engine failures on 6.4L Power Stroke Diesel engines. The test is intended to find debris from the HPFP (high pressure fuel pump) by opening the fuel supply lines at the fuel injectors and draining fuel from the lines and the supply manifold. The debris which is typically small shiny metal particles is created in the fuel pump. In severe failures the debris may be a dark silt-like substance that can pass through the injectors and return to the secondary filter housing after passing through the fuel cooler. For this reason it is wise to take two fuel samples during the initial diagnostic pre-checks. One sample from the HFCM (the frame mounted Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module) and a second from the test port on the fuel cooler. When taking a sample at the injectors use a black cap from an aerosol spray can. The dark color of the cap will contrast the bright metal particles nicely as seen in the photo on the right. You may then pass the sample through a light colored paper such as a paper napkin or a coffee filter to check for darker colored debris. The test is straight forward. Remove the valve covers following the Workshop Manual, read and understand all safety warnings regarding fuel system pressure and procedures. Start with any misfiring cylinders or cylinders with high fuel trims above 10% positive or negative. Slightly loosen the feed tube at the fuel manifold enough to allow the tube to rotate when disconnected at the injector. Then disconnect the fuel supply tube at the injector and place the collection cup/cap under the fitting and move the tube away from the injector fitting. Loosen the injector tube at the manifold to allow fuel to drain into the cup. Keep in mind that the fuel lines must be replaced once the fittings are loosened. Don't drain the manifold as you will likely want to take samples from the other injectors. Set the cup down for a few minutes to allow any particles to settle then you can drain off dome of the fuel and inspect for debris. Collecting a fuel sample directly from an injector supply tube for inspection. Regardless of whether or not you find debris in the high pressure fuel system your inspections are not complete. disconnecting the fuel lines at the HPFP, cylinder heads and the supply system will allow you to inspect the fittings, banjo bolts and the fuel lines for rust as seen below. You can easily identify rust on the HPFP inlet fittings as well as on the inside of the high pressure outlet fittings. Rust can only mean one thing. Water. At this point a complete inspection of the fuel system is necessary including the fuel tank(s), fuel water separator and the WIF indicating system. For warranty purposes a fuel sample and analysis will likely be required to test for fuel with low lubricity and, contaminants like water, gasoline and other various chemicals that do not belong in diesel fuel. The presence of alcohol which allows water to disperse for example will indicate that unapproved fuel additives are being used. Under most circumstances fuel related fuel system failures are not covered by warranty. Remove the fuel lines at the high pressure fuel pump fittings and inspect for rust. Rust on an injector at the return port area is undeniable evidence of water in the fuel. There is no question that this injector is internally damaged. Inspect the inside of the fuel line banjo fittings for rust indicating the presence of water or dark debris that could indicate a high pressure fuel pump failure. On the right: More undeniable evidence of water in the fuel. The fuel line fitting bolts are as rusty and corroded as they are on the outside. Inspect for rust or corrosion on and inside of the fuel line fitting bolts. These bolts also known as "banjo bolts" are used in the fitting shown above to the right.
  14. Diagnostic Test Leads

    Diagnostic test leads can be made from terminal pins removed from salvage wire harnesses. Well why not! If you have priced a set of Flex Leads or generic test lead kits you know they are pricey. What's more is that inevitably through normal use they will eventually break or you will lose a couple forcing you to buy more. So why not use terminal pins that are in the OEM harnesses and make your own? Pictured are a few of the ones from my diagnostic arsenal. Harnesses that are removed from vehicles are not discarded in my dealer's shop. We cut off every connector leaving six or eight inches of wire. The hard shell connectors and the wire terminals frequently become useful in making repairs to wire harnesses. Consider this a form of recycling. The terminal pins can also be removed and used as diagnostic test pins as well and you will find a variety of sizes and types in your salvaged connectors bin if you have one. To make a set of FREE and properly fitting test terminals simply select several types and sizes that you will commonly need and make at least two of each. Select wires that are in good condition and have no corrosion. Six inches if wire is a good working length. After removing the individual wires from the hard shell connectors place heat shrink tubing over the terminal ends to provide support and to protect against shorting circuits when using two leads close together. Strip approximately one half inch of the insulation on the cut end to connect your multimeter leads to. For a few dollars you can obtain some banana-jack terminals and connect them to the cut ends to make low cost leads just like the expensive ones. This promotes a positive connection and prevents damaging of vehicle harnesses by eliminating improperly probed connectors which can lead to improper diagnosis and creating additional wiring concerns.
  15. EGR Marbles

    Have you ever serviced an EGR valve on a 6.0l Power Stroke diesel engine only to have the truck return with a repeat EGR concern? A minimum stop performance code P1335 indicates that the EGR valve is not fully closing which would be surprising if the valve is new. The open valve will cause performance concerns like a lack of power, hesitation smoke and stalling. The engine may not even run if the EGR valve is open enough when it should be closed. Remove the EGR valve and inspect it for contamination like pea-sized carbon chunks we refer to as EGR Marbles. Typically EGR valves stick when they are gummed up or clogged with the soft greasy carbon that collects around the mixer area of the intake manifold. EGR Marbles are quite different in that they are dry and quite hard. They form on the cooler side of the EGR valve inside the outlet side of the EGR cooler and in the port that leads from the cooler to the EGR valve inside of the intake manifold. Often EGR flow is restricted or even completely blocked by this formation but sometimes the carbon breaks apart allowing pieces to bounce around eventually becoming small rounded chunks that are small enough to get caught in the EGR valve when opened. When broken apart the EGR Marbles reveal a gray colored composition, sometimes layered with black carbon. The gray material is evidence that the EGR cooler is leaking coolant which attracts carbon before it burns off leaving the lighter residue. It is possible for an EGR cooler to leak only when very hot which means it may pass the normal test procedures. Once diagnosed the cooler will need to be replaced and the intake manifold will need to be cleaned or replaced if blocked solid or deemed not cleanable. Below, is the underside of a 6.0L intake manifold and the EGR port where the cooler bolts up. Here the carbon builds up and can break apart and head straight for the EGR valve or fall back into the EGR cooler. Here we are looking straight down into a 6.0L EGR cooler on the outlet side where it bolts up to the underside of the intake manifold. This is where the EGR marbles live and breed as chunks break off, break apart and end up in the EGR valve.
  16. Coolant Air Lift Tool

    A coolant airlift tool is a pneumatic cooling system refill and testing tool that has become a necessity for Ford diesel engine servicing and diagnostics. Using the Venturi effect, it employs compressed air to create a vacuum that is applied directly to a vehicle cooling system. This tool is available from a few different manufacturers and the basic design and use is virtually identical between brands. An internet search for "coolant air lift" will provide many sources from which you can purchase one from. The image on the right is an example of the tool. Make sure that the tool you chose comes with several rubber adapters as the universal cone is not always the best choice on some applications. Eliminate cooling system air locks An air lock is air trapped in a high point or a pocket in a cooling system. These pockets can restrict coolant flow and create hot spots within an engine by preventing heat transfer from metal to the coolant. Entrapped air can also create pressure variations and surging within a cooling system. The 6.4L Power Stroke engine in Super Duty trucks has shown us some examples of how air entrapment can affect the cooling system. System pressure surging has been identified as the cause of radiator tank seal failures. Overall system pressure variations also are believed to encourage coolant cavitation behind the water pump impeller that causes cavitation erosion of the front engine cover. To use an airlift to refill a cooling system, assemble the tool and place it on the degas bottle following the instructions that came with the tool. Pre-mix your coolant and fill an appropriately sized container and place the airlift siphon tube into the container with the pick-up screen at the bottom. Verify that the siphon valve is in the closed position. Connect a shop air line to the airlift and begin the process by pressing and holding the air trigger and observe the vacuum gauge. Continue to pull a vacuum until the gauge stabilizes reaching a minimum of 20" of vacuum. The radiator hoses may collapse which is normal. Next, turn off the compressed air and open the siphon valve. Coolant will be drawn into the cooling system until completely filled. After removing the airlift tool you may need to adjust the coolant level in the degas bottle. Install the degas bottle and run the engine to full operating temperature and system pressure. Inspect for leaks. Allow the engine to completely cool and adjust the coolant level to the cold fill marks on the degas bottle. Below: filling a 6.4L Power Stroke cooling system with a coolant airlift tool. Vacuum testing checks for system leaks The airlift tool can also be used to test cooling systems for leaks. Ford recommends this procedure for testing EGR cooler integrity before any engine disassembly as it can detect very small leaks or eliminate unnecessary removal or replacement of a good EGR cooler. Similar to the fill procedure the airlift tool is used to apply vacuum to a cooling system with no leaks and the engine cold. The gauge should reach a minimum of 20" vacuum or more and once a maximum vacuum has been reached and has become stable the air trigger should be turned off. At this point the gauge reading should be noted. A good test is when the system vacuum holds steady over 15 minutes. A bad test result is when system vacuum decreases or fails to initially reach a minimum of 20".
  17. 67 fittings 3

    From the album Oil And Water

    6.7L Power Stroke turbocharger quick connect fittings used for both oil and coolant are a common pattern failure item. You can inspect them by removing the upper intake manifold, using a small mirror and a good light source or using a boreoscope.

    © Keith Browning

  18. Oil And Water

    Whoever said that oil and water don't mix has never made mayonnaise or experienced a 6.0L with a failed oil cooler. As the title implies, this collection of images show what happens when something goes wrong with oil and water and diesel engines.
  19. 6.7L Turbo Coolant Fitting

    From the album Oil And Water

    On 6.7L Power Strokes coolant leaks commonly originate from the turbocharger coolant supply quick connect fitting. When inspecting for leaks consider looking here.

    © Keith Browning

  20. 6.7L Turbo Oil Fitting

    From the album Oil And Water

    On 6.7L Power Strokes oil leaks commonly originate from the turbocharger oil supply quick connect fitting. When inspecting for leaks consider looking here.

    © Keith Browning

  21. DEF Damaged HPFP

    From the album Fuel System Failures

    This is a cross section of a damaged 6.7L High Pressure Fuel Pump that had Diesel Exhaust Fluid run through the fuel system after it was accidentally poured into the fuel tank. The corrosive nature of DEF eventually led to this pump seizing during operation and splitting the case in the process. Notice the rust colored crystals and the scuffing.

    © Keith Browning

  22. Fuel System Failures

    Over the years we have encountered many fuel system problems ranging from rusty tanks to evolving fuel systems that had many quirks not to mention a variety of owner induced and fuel quality concerns.
  23. 6.0L HPOP 2

    From the album Oil And Water

    From a failed HPOP (high pressure oil pump) this is the pump body where the swash plate and cylinder block are installed. A light press fit is intended to hold the swash plate in place but apparently they can spin - notice the matching scuff marks to the swash plate photo. .

    © Keith Browning

  24. 6.0L HPOP 1

    From the album Oil And Water

    From a failed HPOP (high pressure oil pump) you can see the scuffing on the side of this aluminum swash plate body.

    © Keith Browning

  25. UV Dye Fuel Leak Testing

    From the album Fuel System Failures

    Another shot of a leaking injector detected using Ultra Violet tracer dye. This is a high pressure fuel leak from the injector body itself which required running the engine to see the leak. It did not take long to become evident.

    © keithbrowning